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30 Years War
Transcript of 30 Years War
* France was nearly surrounded by territory controlled by the two Habsburg states (Spain and the Holy Roman Empire), and was eager to exert its power against the weaker German states; this dynastic concern overtook religious ones and led to Catholic France's participation on the otherwise Protestant side of the war.
* Sweden and Denmark were interested in gaining control over northern German states bordering the Baltic Sea. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia. Educated by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic who wanted to impose religious uniformity on his lands When Ferdinand was elected Bohemian Crown Prince in 1617, he triggered the Thirty Years' War in 1618 when his two Catholic representatives were thrown out of a window into a pile of horse manure. The so-called Defenestration of Prague provoked open revolt in Bohemia which had powerful foreign allies. Throughout the years, the many uprising and mini-wars would add to the descruction and bloodshed of the 30 Years War. Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle against the Huguenots, Henri Motte, 1881. Mainly, the 30 years war was not one continuous war, but rather a series of many smaller wars. While it was rooted in religious conflict, it soon became a political battle for surpremacy and power between europes rulers. The end of the war was not brought about by one treaty but instead by a group of treaties such as the Treaty of Hamburg. On 15 May 1648, the Treaty of Osnabrück was signed. Over five months later, on 24 October, the Treaty of Münster was signed, ending the Thirty Years' War. Effects of the War * Estimates put the reduction of population in the German states at about 15% to 30%
* Many features of the war spread disease.
* Spain weakened
* Fixed territorial boundaries for many of the countries
* The Peace of Westphalia was layed the foundations for what are even today considered the basic tenets of the sovereign nation-state.
* Ended the large-scale religious bloodshed accompanying the Reformation
* The war end the age of mercenaries and ushered in the age of well-disciplined national armies.