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Teaching Grammar: Presentation and Practice

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Lilia Angelova

on 5 October 2016

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Transcript of Teaching Grammar: Presentation and Practice

Teaching Grammar
Presentation and Practice
We can study a language in terms of '
communicative function
':
= social purpose
exponent: the sentence itself/ the example of the TL
function: the purpose of the language/utterance
e.g. Have you got the time on you?
= asking for information
- lang. we use to express particular ideas or to achieve particular results in particular situations.
= 'communicative act
' = use lang to achieve a purpose (usually involves
social interaction
)
notion: concept/ an idea/ a topic
N
F
F
F
F
F
F
N
N
N
F
F
N
N
F
F
Functions vs Notions
F
A Functional Syllabus
=finely-tuned input
A basic procedure for presenting new language
[target language]

• Clarify the
form (F)
of the item
e.g.
present simple
:
s + base verb + (time expression)/ object

past continuous
:
s + was/ were + ‘-ing’ verb

->
I was reading when you called me.
• Predict any problems your students might have with
the
pronunciation (P)
of the target language.
e.g.
You could have called me!

2. Context
Devise your own context or find examples of the item in use in
authentic/ coursebook materials
: an anecdote, a reading text, a listening/ dialogue, a short video.
1. Preparation/ Language Analysis
• Clarify for yourself the
meaning/ use (M)
of the item
e.g.
present simple
is used to express
habitual/regular actions
OR things that are

true for you
-> I swim every day.
3. Modelling + Drilling

Model
the item clearly and
drill
it (individual/ choral drilling)
• Use
back-chaining
!

4. Concept Checking Questions
Check students’ understanding of the
meaning/use
of the item.
Use diagrams, pictures and timelines to help you.

3 Approaches to Teaching Grammar
Deductive Approach
S
T -> S
S<->T
PPP= PRESENT
PRACTICE
PRODUCE

= MFP
e.g. vegetable
past conti
past simple
s + was/were + v+ing
s + irregular past v/ v+'ed'
5. Board-work
Elicit
the form/ name of tense. Then focus on the
form
by writing it on the board.
Use
different
colours!
e.g.
I
was reading
when you
called
me.

6. Further examples

Supply
or
elicit
further examples of the item in
different contexts
.
e.g. T: Tell me about something you do every day?

S1: I work every day…
S2: I play tennis every day…

7. Practice

controlled practice
- only 1 correct answer


less-controlled/guided practice
- more than 1 answer possible


freer practice
- personalize target language;
- activate Ss language store

Example 1 (pg.2)
finely-tuned input
= Ss
predict/elicit
the correct TL
'm going
CONTEXT
= finely-tuned input
= allows Ss to check answers
= model/drilling
guided discovery
= MFP?
T must add ______ and _____?
F
* going to
+ v


* will
+ v
= I'll
= plan/
intention
Example 2 (pg. 3)
Deductive/ Inductive
has/have
past participle of v
MFP?
M
F
P?
MFP?
M
FP?
MFP?
=practice output
has written
controlled
films has she made?
did she start acting?
prac output
prac output
controlled
= increase STT
= less-controlled
M
FP?
started
ESA= ENGAGE
STUDY
ACTIVATE

Thornbury's
How to Teach Grammar
(1999:30-49)

Presentation to Practice (Example A pg. 8)
Cutting Edge Intermediate Student's Book
Example B (pg. 9)
Harmer's Model
the interface
=Krashen's comprehensible input
PPP
PRESENT = MFP
- functional lang; pron
= need error correction
= delayed error correction
PRACTICE
1. controlled
2. guided/less-controlled
3. freer practice
personalize TL
Writing
Speaking
= personalization
= activate Ss language store (schemata)
PRODUCE
'rule-driven'
=Ss lack metalanguage
PPP
derives from
'
Situational Language Teaching
'
which emerged in the
1960s.
Checking Meaning
= Concept Checking Questions (CCQ)

The T sets up a situation
(context)
in order to
generate examples
of the TL=
= instant decision/spontaneous
P
= s+'ll
+ v
=
M
FP?
NO
YES
NO
NO
if + past simple, s + would + v
s + had to + verb
You should have told me!
I have been learning German for two weeks.
NO
YES
NO
NO
PPP: Present -> Practice -> Produce
Clear CONTEXT
• Physical gestures/ mime/ facial expressions/ demonstrations
• Sound effects
• Synonyms – Antonyms
• Categories – examples (superordinate)
• Timelines
• Clines
• Pictures/ drawings
• Paraphrasing
Controlled Prac Output (pg. 5)
Less-controlled/guided practice (pg.6)
/kʊʊud'əf/ ≠ could of *
Approach?
INDUCTIVE
Controlled Prac Output (pg. 4)
= Oral drills
a)
Repetition drill
'The
real learning experience
is when learners try to
use the language themselves
.'
Restricted output activities
force the Ss to use the TL (thus restrict the lang needed). They focus on -
accuracy
; -
limited options for communication
.
T models sentence.
Ss= choral drilling
=MFP?
=M
F
P
b)
T cues 'bus'
Substitution drills
change noun - v is affected
s affects form of aux verb 'to be'
c)
Transformation drills
=Ss make predictions
d)
True sentences
And then?
Variations on drills
Who speaks?
whole group =choral/ individual Ss
round the class/ random selection of Ss
male/female
this half/that half
As/ Bs
pairs: alternate words
Ss lead the drill
How do they speak?
normal volume/whisper/loud/shout/sing/mouth silently
normal speed/fast/slow
normal intonation/flat intonation/exaggerated
change the stress
American/Australian/Liverpool accent
What was he doing before he lost his wig?
What was he doing after he lost his wig?
Was he finished eating the ice-cream?
gapfill task
Murphy's
English Grammar in Use (Intermediate)
- focus on fluency or accuracy?
Daisy's Diary
What was she doing on Tuesday at 09:30?
What was she doing on Friday at 9am?
She was at home doing housework.
Penny Ur's
Grammar Practice Activities
=third conditional!
Conveying Meaning
Deductive Approach (PPP)
= finely tuned input
MFP?
MFP?
M
F
P?
M
FP?
Context
input/output?
controlled prac output
Less-controlled practice (pg. 7)
Parrott's Grammar for English Language Teachers (2010:241)
=personalization
accuracy
- less rigid (more than one answer possible)
- encourage the use of TL
- increase STT
Where were you ....?
What were you doing ...
(on)/ (at)/ time expression
?
Freer practice ideas?
=effective and necessary at lower levels
Put it in the bag.
Refusing
Thanks, but I can't.
No. I won't.
Write the answer in your book.
Apologising
I'm awfully sorry.
We regret any inconvenience caused.
I do apologize.
Giving instructions
Disagreeing
I don't think you're right.
Surely not!
Well, to my mind the UN has the best chance.
functions and exponents
Task:
'Find Someone Who' Games
= question formation
- target structures are diluted into the general language mix
- natural, personalized conversation
Free practice
Communication Output
Free practice ideas?
The Past Continuous Tense
NOW
PAST
Conveying Meaning
-> future arrangements
Sleeping
-> have to/can't/mustn't
Kayleigh
She's flying to Berlin to visit family...
Stepfather
Dan
Tom
- listening for general understanding
=finely-tuned input
- listening for specific info
=finely-tuned input
MFP?
MFP?
M
F
P?
M
FP?
=guided discovery
=finely-tuned input
Christmas lunch
=controlled
-> increase STT
Look at their fridge and cupboard. Ask and answer questions about the ingredients in the recipe.
http://oomongzu.com/pre-intermediate/past-continuous/
Deductive Approach
Deductive Approach
reported speech
are going to
'll
'll
'll
information gap task
She was working at the office.
=personalization
An agricultural area
has been

made
.
A water pipeline
is being built
.
Hotels
are going to be built
.
Swimming at TUKS pool
Niece's Christening
Lecturing ENG 322?
free practice?
Carol
Granny
=free practice output
= some
personalization
-> T can
pre-teach vocabulary
if necessary
- main aim=
introduce context
- pairwork increases STT
=finely-tuned input
=finely-tuned input
=guided discovery
=guided discovery
MFP?
=finely-tuned input
practice output
controlled
less-controlled
practice output
=free practice output
-> use
realia
(real objects)
e.g. This watch
was made
in Switzerland.
go out
old
brothers
aunt & uncle
computer course
after that
abroad
mother
growing up
=less-controlled
=very restricted '
Find Someone Who
'
=focus is
accuracy
of
question forms
=free practice
-> increase STT
to introduce the context of TL
-> deductive approach
MFP?
M
F
P?
MFP?
M
FP?
(only 1 correct answer)
practice output
b)= prac output
controlled
prac output
=
restricted framework
for
free and creative language use
= personalization
= preparation for speaking in b)
= setting up the context for TL
= the context!
(although a
very vague/ineffective
guiding question)
M
FP?
MFP?
M
F
P?
=finely-tuned input
M
F
P?
= clarify rules of form and use for quantifiers
'Apple Cake'
any
any
Concept Checking Questions:
Can we use 'some' for C nouns?
Can we use some for UC nouns?
Can we use 'some' in negative sentences?
NO
YES
YES
Can we use 'some' in questions?
NO
=Is/ Are + there +
'any'
+ noun?
some
a lot of
many
much
-> T can
pre-teach vocabulary
needed to complete the task
practice output
less-controlled
= setting up the next task
- increases STT
- more than 1 answer possible (
but restricted framework= what is in the fridge)
= aim is
accuracy
of
written form
= aim is
accuracy
of
spoken form
= using/activating the TL in a new, personalized context
comms output?
e.g. if Ss follow the recipe successfully (and
make the dish!)
then we have
communicated effectively
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