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Transcript of Marketing
Kotler & Armstrong's five core concepts to plan a marketing strategy are:
Needs, wants, demands
– Products and services
– Value, satisfaction, quality
– Exchanges, transactions, relationships
– Markets (Kotler & Armstrong: Principles of Marketing- 9th edition)
Marketing is defined as the act of promoting and selling products or services.. It is about promoting your product (or business, or service) to the right people, at the right time, in the right ways.
Marketing is a science that requires research, planning, and implementation. A poorly-planned approach will rarely produce anything more than mediocre results.
A marketing strategy is vital, and begins and ends with your customers; there should always be a continual focus on your customers and their needs.
In today’s competitive climate, a solid marketing campaign is critical to the success of a business. Whether you are running a small, local service, or a large, multinational company.
Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong are world leading marketing authorities. They have worked together to provide a blend of skills uniquely suited to specializing in marketing strategies. Together they make the complex world of marketing practical, approachable, and enjoyable.
In their popular textbook, Principles of Marketing, they have developed a specialized marketing model to help understand a path to follow in working on a strategy to satisfy the customer.
An academic library needs to think of itself as a brand with specific “products” developed to meet the needs of it’s “customers” (Smith 334). This would include promotion of the library’s digital resources, LibGuides, special reserves, exhibits, video collection, quiet study rooms and technology. Some students are too anxious or embarrassed to ask a librarian a question. That is why marketing library services are paramount to sharing resources and ideas with the college community.
Benefits, Ideas & Results of Marketing Strategies
Because of budgets being tight and the funding being sparse, there are a few promotional campaigns that have worked for academic libraries. These promotions call for little money and not much more manpower in terms of planning and executing. They also incorporate elements of social media, for example Facebook, which is becoming a more popular and beneficial tool of marketing in academic libraries. In a 2011 study about library Facebook pages, researcher Terra B. Jacobson concluded “the results presented here show that many libraries are using Facebook primarily as a marketing tool and it may be valid to assert that this is currently the best use in the library realm” (Glazer 19).
At the same time Pinterest is also being used as a marketing and literacy tool in libraries. Central Methodist University found by using Pinterest it helps to inform faculty and students of new acquisitions, act as a research portal for students to locate resources, promote information literacy and engage with distance learning students. This library worked closely with the English Department, as well as with education technology classes to market the library’s pins. Thus promoting the library’s resources and collection. “Though marketing these collections with Pinterest boards is new to our library, it has been well received especially by students. ...we are hopeful that this new method of marketing and outreach will be embraced by faculty, as they will now have the ability to immediately see new additions to the collections” (Dudenhoffer 330).
Pinterest as a Marketing Tool
The benefits of using these types of social media tools is that they draw more attention and users to the library and it’s resources. One example was a Facebook post on a policy change regarding checking out CDs & DVDs in the Rutgers Music library. It was only through the library’s Facebook page that the information was discovered and led to the campus TV station producing a PSA to promote the change, further promoting the policy change.
Benefit of Facebook for Promotion
Ned Potter author of the library marketing tool kit said:
“If your library is not already on Twitter, I’d suggest that would be a great place to start. When used well Twitter can very quickly improve the reputation of your organization, and you get some great feedback via that platform – things you can show to senior managers and say: look, this is working. Try using Storify to create a document you can show people about how a particular online marketing effort has gone.”
WHAT IS MARKETING ALL ABOUT?
MARKETING IN OUR WORLD TODAY:
Build Your Library's "Brand Image"
"What do we need the library for anyway?" is a common question today.
To market a library, it is necessary to overcome any potential negative perceptions.
OVERCOME THE NEGATIVES!
We need libraries because of...
• High-speed Internet.
• Access to more materials than any bookstore.
• Downloadable eBooks, eAudio books, music and videos.
• A virtual branch where you can access information 24/7.
• A mobile app for you to take “it” with you wherever you go.
• Innovative learning programs for virtually every interest.
• Dynamic space and creative environments to stimulate thought.
• Librarians to help you learn how to use all these services.
(Gaiman The Guardian, Tuesday 15 October 2013)
We Need a "Library Marketing Toolkit"
Marketing and strategic planning go hand in hand.
All libraries need to look at their values in their marketing strategy.
So for every library doing marketing,"if you look at the value each
segment attaches to the library, you've got the core of what marketing
is about. Your planning should be driven by segments rather than the
library as a whole, with an overarching strategy for the library. What
brings in the business and activity are the segments." (Kendrick, 2012)
Good library marketing should market to different user groups with
different lifestyles simultaneously. The key is to understand your market.
Watch the next two videos for inspiration...
The butt-brush factor
Displays are largely avoided if customers find themselves coming into contact with others by standing in that general area.
Underhill cited a study of a Bloomingdale's store in NYC, in which a camera trained on the main ground floor entrance picked up behaviors of shoppers who approached a rack of neckties.
Customers who were brushed from behind by others were more likely to abandon what they were doing to avoid the contact (Underhill, 1999, 17-18).
The Landing Zone
Signage placed outside facing the parking lot, such as in a window display, should be "big and bold" and "short and simple" or it will be missed entirely, especially at certain times of the day when the lighting will prevent people from really seeing it.
Signage will be missed if it is placed in what Underhill calls "the landing zone." Upon entering a store, customers will fail to notice anything in the landing zone because they have built momentum in their movement from outside to inside.
Signs, displays, baskets, employees, etc. will all be missed if they are trying to direct the customer who is still in the landing zone.
Retailers (or in this case, librarians) can do several things to hasten this transition. They can try using a "power display" such as the one in Old Navy to slow customers down as soon as they get inside, or a display too good (to the customer) to pass up, such as a bin of heavily discounted merchandise. An employee can greet the customer with a flier, a basket or a hello instead of trying to steer them anywhere, or they can start the zone out in the parking lot to get people slowing down earlier.
Placement of specific items that generate interest from specific groups should be carefully considered. In one study, Underhill noted how drug-store aspirin was placed near the refrigerators where soda was stocked. The elderly were more likely to look for the aspirin, while teenagers were more likely seek out the soda. Elderly customers would then noticeably become rattled and leave empty-handed if the area they wanted to obtain their products from was crowded by teenagers.
Placement of a table filled with discount items near the front of a store resulted in customers failing to browse the rest of the store. The display that customers see when they enter a business should generate interest without discouraging customers from doing more browsing.
Likewise, signage is ineffective if placement is outside of a patron's direct line of sight. To be more effective it should be: short and concise (readable in 1.5 seconds), placed in parts of the building where patrons are likely to stand and wait or rest,
Why We Buy: The Science of Shopping
"...an important medium for transmitting messages and closing sales is now the store and the aisle. That building, that place, has become a great big three-dimensional advertisement for itself. Signage, shelf position, display space and special fixtures all make it either likelier or less likely that a shopper will buy a particular item (or any item at all)" (Underhill, 1999, 32).
Should we be using retail strategies to market the library?
On the other hand...
negative aspects of retail marketing
Companies marketing towards
play on insecurities
From a very young age (18 months)
are identifying themselves with brands
Undermines the notion that marketing is about appealing to existing interests by instead manufacturing feelings of inadequacy in even
make sure your speakers are on for audio by Jennifer Ludden of NPR featuring guest speaker Juliet Schor, author of the book
Born to Buy.
"Therein lies the danger of today's teen-driven economy, observers say: As everyone from record promoters to TV executives to movie producers besieges today's teens with
marketing pitches, teenagers increasingly look to the media to provide them with a ready-made identity predicated on today's version of what's cool. Rather than empowering youngsters, the incessant focus on their wants and desires leaves them adrift in a sea of conflicting marketing messages" (PBS).
Retail strategies that could be adapted for your library:
must be authentic. It must reflect the integrity of the institution
Designing Libraries That Encourage Teens to Loiter (see annotated bibliography)
Marketing Effectiveness depends
on a combination of five factors
1. Customer Philosophy
Management must understand the customer’s needs and wants when planning its operation.
2. Integrated Marketing Organization
There must be a staff that can carry out the marketing analysis, plan, implementation and control.
3. Adequate Marketing Information
Management needs to receive the best information needed in order to conduct effective marketing.
4. Strategic Orientation
Marketing Management needs to generate innovative strategies and plan for long-term growth.
5. Operational Efficiency
Marketing plans need to be implemented in a cost-effective manner; the results should be monitored for rapid corrective action.
Measuring Market Success
Libraries need to:
analyze and review current market performance in order to identify key areas for improvement.
know if they are doing the “right things” to maintain their patronage (keep their current customers).
to know if their marketing strategy is creating avenues for new business opportunities (increasing their customer base).
(Connor and Tynan, 1999)
Marketing initiatives need to be measured
for effectiveness and reviewed
to determine what works and what does not.
Daily, librarians can gather statistical data:
By use (number of transactions)
Outputs (circulation, visitation)
The usage of electronic databases
(Measuring Library Success, 2006)
Guidelines for Measuring a
Library's Performance and Value
Define the library’s mission and strategic objectives. Doing so will allow the library to measure the accomplishments of the objectives.
Identify the ways the Library impacts the community (users) with its programs and services.
Determine the types of information needed to proves the library’s value
Anecdotal evidence (stories, letters, quotes from patrons)
Traditional library performance or output statistics
Comparative data from peer libraries
Cost benefit analysis
Return on Investment
Determine the Data Collection Method
Telephone of online surveys to patrons and employees
Focus groups that are comprised of patrons and employees
Determine how rigorous the research methodology has to be in order to justify the results
Make sure that the library has staff resources and expertise to gather the needed data.
Communicate the findings to stakeholders
Through news articles, community meetings or annual report
(Measuring Library Success, 2006)
A Measure of Success
Plan for future business to increase (business) sales volume
Look at trends , threats and opportunities to find new ways (marketing strategies) to achieve long term growth
Figure out new ways to offer superior value to increase profitability (bring in more customers or patrons)
Don't be a Salesman ... Be a Marketer
Look at current statistics and strives to simply increase present-day business (sales)
Are oriented toward the short-term goals
Are more concerned for the individual customer (patron)
Work on selling current customers
An accountant told Walt Disney that the Disneyland Guidebook was only netting a meager profit, and advised Mr. Disney to raise the price.
Mr. Disney declined.
Mr. Disney wanted these books to go back home with his visitors, so that the books would sit on people’s coffee tables and be seen by friends, relatives and neighbors that came to visit.
(Anderson & Pierce, 2013)
In 2013 Disneyland had 15,963,000
visitors (2012 Theme index, 2013).
(Who do you think was right?)
Don't think like a Beancounter ...
Think like a Marketer
Libraries are no longer storehouses of books and knowledge, nor treasure houses, where patrons are seen as nuisances.
Libraries are true service organizations.
Librarians are now Information Providers, who must effectively satisfy the information needs of all their patrons.
To be effective, librarians must satisfy the customer's (user's) priorities, expectations, individuality, responsiveness, relationship, quality of services, professional skills and competencies, and value-added services.
(KumarDas and Kumar Karn, 2008)
Don't be stuck in the 50's
Be a Marketer
No matter how good your business is – there is always room for improvement.
Don’t be afraid to move things around. Nothing is set-in-stone. Sometimes patrons locate undiscovered treasures, simply because they have been moved to a different location.
Be creative. Think outside the box.
Pretend you are a patron, with new eyes. Enter the library as one who has never been there before. Think about the library’s ease of use and placement of signage. Ask yourself, “If I am looking for X and I don’t know my bearings, how easy is it for me to find?”
Don't be satisfied with Status Quo
Be a Marketer
You Know Your Marketing Strategy is Working When ....
This Becomes This
to you by...
Maximizing space is important!
keep your clientele in mind when creating displays
Signage rules to keep in mind
Libraries create unique marketing plans to satisfy their patrons.
"Marketing plans provide a framework for the effective, logical, and comprehensive development of marketing activities. A thoughtfully created marketing plan that is uniquely tailored to an individual institution will also help a library use its resources (staff, time and money) more efficiently.”
(Duke & Tucker, 2007)
Prepare a mission statement
List and describe target (niche) markets
Describe your services
Spell out marketing and promotional strategies
Identify and understand the competition
Establish marketing goals that are quantifiable
Monitor your results carefully.
Marketing Plan A
Marketing Plan B
1. Understand your community
and what it wants
2. Understand your customer
3. Pick a niche
4. Develop a marketing message
5. Determine your marketing medium
6. Set marketing goals. (SMART) Sensible, Measureable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time Specific
7. Develop a marketing budget
(New Mexico State Library, nd)
Marketing Plan C
It should include:
An executive summary (overview of library, summary of key ideas)
Market audit and research (overview of marketing audit and research findings)
Audience analysis, segmentation, targets, needs describe findings related to patrons and their needs)
Mission goals and objectives (state library mission and identify goals)
Action plan (describe actions, strategies, timelines, roles, responsibilities)
Marketing mix (describe tools and resources to be used for promotion, branding, and publicity)
Budget (discuss the budget)
Appendix (include miscellaneous information like press release samples, handouts, flyers, etc.)
Examples of Academic Library Marketing Plans
Illinois State University (2012-2014)
Penn State Library (2007-2008)
Rutgers University Library (2013-2015)
Annotated bibliography pt 1
2012 Theme index: Global attractions attendance report (2013). Jeffers, G. (Ed.). Retrieved from http://www.aecom.com/deployedfiles/Internet/Capabilities/Economics/_documents/2012 Theme Index Combined_1-1_online.pdf.
This publication provided the statistical attendance numbers for theme parks and museums around the world for the year 2012. This provided the attendance numbers for Disney World.
Anderson, P. F., & Pierce, T. J. (2013, Feb. 25). [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.disneyhistoryinstitute.com/p/store-disneyland-items.html.
This blog shows how Walt Disney used his guidebooks as a word of mouth marketing tool for his new park, Disney Land.
Connor, P., & Tynan, C. (1999). In Sickness and In Health: Exploring and Redeveloping a Measure of Marketing Effectiveness. Journal Of Marketing Management, 15(8), 733-756.
This article demonstrates how effectiveness is a necessary requirement in the marketing policies of any organization. It explains that all organizations need to continually analyze and review how its marketing strategies are progressing.
Dudenhoffer, C. (2012, June). Pin it! : Pinterest as a library marketing and information literacy tool. College & Research Libraries News, 73(6), 328-332. Retrieved from http://crln.acrl.org/content/73/6/328.full.pdf+html.
This article is about how one academic library used Pinterest as a marketing & literacy tool.
Duke, L. M., & Tucker, T. (2007). How to Develop a Marketing Plan for an Academic Library. Technical Services Quarterly, 25(1), 51.
This article discusses how marketing is necessary of libraries. It illustrates how marketing plans and mission statements go hand in hand. It also illustrates how a library can develop its own marketing plan.
Erickson, A. (2013, June 4). Designing libraries that encourage teens to loiter. Retrieved from http://www.theatlanticcities.com/design/2013/06/designing-libraries-encourage-teens-loiter/5735/.
This is an article about The New York Public Library in Harlem that has renovated and designed a space specifically for teens.
Gaiman, N. (2013, October 15). Neil Gaiman: Why our future depends on libraries, reading and daydreaming. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/oct/15/neil-gaiman-future-libraries-reading-daydreaming.
This is a lecture given by Neil Gaiman and edited by The Guardian for The Reading Agency annual lecture.
Glazer, H. (2012). "Likes" are lovely, but do they lead to more logins?. College & Research Libraries News, 73(1), 18-21.
This article is about Rutgers Library used Facebook as tool for attracting new users and promoting services. It also explains how other libraries could use FaceBook as a marketing tool.
Grant, F. (2013, June 3). Expert tips for marketing your library. Association of European Research Libraries. Retrieved from http://www.libereurope.eu/blog/expert-tips-for-marketing-your-library.
An interview with Ned Potter about his book The Library Marketing Toolkit. Potter shares tips in this interview for marketing in libraries.
JCDecaux North America (2010). The mall in today's teen culture. Retrieved from http://www.jcdecauxna.com/mall/document/mall-today%E2%80%99s-teen-culture.
This is the source for the image on slide 13. The website is a study of teen mall culture.
Kassel, A. (1999). How to write a marketing plan. Marketing Library Services, 13(5), Retrieved from http://www.infotoday.com/mls/jun99/how-to.htm.
This web article is a “how-to”. It describes the steps to create a marketing plan for a library.
Annotated bibliography pt 2
Kotler, P. (1977). From sales obsession to marketing effectiveness. Harvard Business Review, 55(6), 67-75.
In this article, Mr. Kolter describes the difference between being sales and marketing. This article shows how marketing audits need to be done in order for an organization to continue to grow. This article explains how being sales-minded is now-thinking and marketing-mindedness looks toward future growth.
Kumar Das, B., & Kumar Karn, S. (2008). Marketing of library and information services in global era: A current approach. Webology, 5(2), Article 56. Retrieved from http://www.webology.org/2008/v5n2/a56.html.
This article gives a broad prospective on global marketing. It defines marketing, and shows ways for libraries to effectively market its services.
Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (2000). Principles of marketing (9th ed.). Retrieved from http://users.tkk.fi/~svsuomin/tiedostot/markkinointi/Kotler_Principles%20of%20marketing7.pdf.
A pdf version of Principles of Marketing that presents information about marketing strategy in tables and bullets.
Lamb, A. (2012). The marketing plan and cycle. Retrieved from http://eduscapes.com/marketing/5.htm.
This website gives an overview to library marketing. It illustrates the need that libraries have for long-range marketing plans. It offers samples of market plans currently in effect by other libraries as well as provides a list of key elements found in successful marketing plans.
Ludden, J. (2004, September 4). Book cites influence of marketing on children. npr. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=3890203.
A talk with author Juliet Schor on npr about her book Born to Buy, which is written about how marketing negatively impacts children and their parents.
Measuring Library Success. (2006). Library Success: Performance Management & Evaluation, 128-132.
The article discusses methods for measuring success at libraries. It explains why measurement is important. It also provides examples of measurement tools for all types of libraries.
New Mexico Library. (n.d.). Library marketing workbook. Retrieved from http://www.nmstatelibrary.org/docs/development/planning/Marketing_Plan_Workbook.pdf.
This pdf is the marketing workbook used by the New Mexico Library. It provides the basic instructions and template for creating a workable marketing plan.
Ohler, J. (Director) (2014). Library success stories [Web]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/9AcVZYmXSho.
This youtube video shows how one mid-western academic library values each patron. Not all marketing success stories need to be grand. Sometimes success is measured one person at a time.
PBS Frontline (2001, February). The merchants of cool. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/cool/view/.
This article and PBS special show how organizations use marketing to manipulate and instill negative feelings in teenagers that in turn makes the teens into consumers of their content.
Potter, N. (2012, August 31). The library marketing toolkit. London: Facet Publishing.
This text by Ned Potter covers every aspect of marketing and branding for information organizations such as libraries and archives.
Potter, N. (2012, November 13). Marketing your library: An interview with Terry Kendrick, guru of strategic marketing in libraries. American Libraries Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.americanlibrariesmagazine.org/article/marketing-your-library.
This is an interview of Terry Kendrick conducted by Ned Potter for his book The Library Marketing Toolkit. The two men discuss marketing strategy in libraries.
Smith, D. A. (2011). Strategic Marketing of Library Resources and Services. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 18(4), 333-349.
This is an article that suggests methods how to promote libraries resources and services through strategic planning.
Underhill, P. (1999). Why we buy: The science of shopping. New York: Simon & Schuster.
This text by Paco Underhill is about what tricks and techniques retail stores use to influence consumers and drive sales.