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Photosynthesis

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by

Alan Richardson

on 16 January 2013

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Transcript of Photosynthesis

Sunlight In the process of photosynthesis, plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates. Autotrophs; plants, algae, and some bacteria. The chloroplast. To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates. Sunlight Chloroplasts have two membranes. The liquid-like gel on the inside of chloroplast is called the stroma. (Site of Kreb's Cycle aka Light-Independent Reactions.) Inside the chloroplasts are discs called thylakoids. Stacks of thylakoids are called granum. The interior of the thylakoid is called the lumen. It is along the membrane of the thylakoid that the Light Dependent Reactions aka the ETC takes place. Light Dependent Reactions LIGHT REACTIONS Along the the thylakoid membrane - Sunlight - ADP
- Water - NADP+ - Oxygen - ATP
- NADPH THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN 1.) Light Strikes the Photosystem. A photosystem is a collection of pigments, i.e. chlorophyll. A.) This light is used for photolysis. Photolysis is the splitting of a water molecule. B.) When water molecules are split, the resulting products are O2, H+, and high energy electrons. 2.) The high energy electron is passed from protein to protein in a series known as the Electron Transport Chain (ETC). A. The high energy electron is passed from protein to protein. Each protein uses a little of the energy of the electron to pump H+ ions into the thylakoid lumen. This results in a high H+ concentration inside the thylakoid. B. At the end of the ETC, the high energy electron is added to NADP+ and H+ to make NADPH (A storage molecule). 3.) ATP Synthase uses the H+ concentration gradient to force a 3rd phosphate group onto ADP. A. ATP Synthase allows H+ ions to move from lumen (high concentration) to stroma (low concentration). B. But as H+ ions move through thylakoid membrane, they are forced to help add 3rd phosphate group onto ADP. Water Light Dependent
Reactions Oxygen ATP NADPH Different colors of light travel at different wavelengths. All light strikes photosynthetic pigments. Chlorophyll uses Red Light and Blue Light. So What of Green Light? Green Light is reflected back. That's why plants appear Green! It's the light that isn't used. The Light Reactions take place in or around the Thylakoid's. The Dark Reactions take place in the stroma. Light Independent Reactions DARK REACTIONS The Calvin Cycle The Stroma - CO2 - ATP - NADPH - C6H12O6 - ADP - NADP+ The Dark Reactions aka The Calvin Cycle - 6 CO2's go in. - 1 C6H12O6 comes out. - 18 ATP's are used to store 24 high energy electrons from NADPH's from the Light Reactions Glucose's can then be linked together to form: Starch: Storage Cellulose: Structure Sucrose: Export
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