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Transcript of Chapter 18
The First Great Awakening taught that God had already chosen those to be saved.
Now preachers taught that everyone could gain forgiveness for their sins.
Christians believed they could build "heaven on Earth." Chapter 18: An Era of Reform Quiz Answers 1. The 1820s and 1830s.
2. Henry David Thoreau.
3. Taught Sunday school.
5. Because prisoners were in chains and cages, children were being jailed as adult criminals, and mentally ill people were dirty and whipped if they misbehaved.
6. Before, most ministers said that God had chosen who would be saved. Now, preachers said everyone could gain forgiveness for their sins. Sections 18.2 - 18.4 Katey Myers
Chapter 18 The Second Great Awakening A revival of religious feeling swept across the nation in the 1820s and 1830s (called the Second Great Awakening).
Day after day, people gathered in churches and big white tents to hear a message of hope.
Like the First Great Awakening during colonial days, this religious revival fired people's emotions.
Many preachers taught that one way to be saved was to do good works.
The message that everyone could gain forgiveness for their sins attracted enthusiastic followers throughout the West and North
Charles G.Finney's preaching inspired many people to oppose slavery. Optimistic Ideas Other optimistic ideas also inspired Americans during the Second Great Awakening.
In New England, Ralph Waldo Emerson, a former minister, was the central figure in a movement called transcendentalism.
Transcendentalists added to the spirit of reform by urging people to question society's rules and institutions.
They said, " Do not conform to other's expectations".
Emerson's friend Henry David Thoreau captured his new individualism in a famous essay.
Thoreau practiced what he preached; in 1845, he went into the woods near Concord, Massachusetts, to live alone and as close to nature as possible. Model Communities While Thoreau tried to find the ideal life in solitude, other transcendentalists tried to create perfect communities.
In 1841, George Ripley started a community called Brook Farm near Boston.
Brook Farm was only one of hundreds of model communities started by reformers in the first half of the 19th century.
Residents at Brook Farm tried to live in "brotherly cooperation" instead of competing with each other, as people in the larger society did.
Most of these communities lasted only a few years. Reforming the Treatment of Prisoners and the Mentally Ill The Plight of the Mentally Ill In 1841 Dorothea Dix agreed to teach Sunday school at a jail. What she saw changed her life forever.
She was horrified to see many inmates in chains and cages.
Children accused of minor crimes were punished with adult charges.
What shocked Dix most of all was the way mentally ill people were treated. They would be put in dirty jail cells and whipped if they misbehaved.
Reformers believed that the mentally ill needed treatment and care, not punishment, but Massachusetts needed more mental hospitals. Campaigning for Better Conditions For two years, Dix secretly gathered firsthand information about the horrors she had seen.
She prepared a detailed report for the Massachusetts state legislature.
She said, "I come as the advocate of helpless, forgotten, insane, and idiotic men and women."
Inspired by her success, Dix visited prisons in other states as well. These states also created special mental hospitals.
Dix continued to campaign for reform until she died in 1887.
Most states had created justice systems for children.
Dix showed that with enough courage and dedication, reformers could lead society to make significant changes. The Need for Public Schools Horace Mann was lucky to have even his limited ten-week school year.
Most children simply did not go to school at all.
Reformers believed that education would help children escape poverty and become good citizens.
He stated, "Our means of education are the grand machinery by which the 'raw material' of human nature can be worked up into inventors and discoverers, into skilled artisans and scientific farmers."
Citizens of Massachusetts voted to pay taxes to build better schools, pay teachers higher salaries, and establish special training schools for teachers.
Horace Mann is now considered the father of American public schools. An Unfinished Reform By 1850, many states in the North and West used Mann's ideas.
But America still did not offer education to girls and African Americans.
Education for girls and women did make some progress.
African Americans, however, had few options.
Mann realized that much more needed to be done to increase educational opportunity for women and African Americans, so he became the first president of a co-ed school, Antioch College in Ohio. Quiz Questions 1. When was the Second Great Awakening?
2. Who went to live in the woods in 1845?
3. What did Dorothea Dix do in the first jail she visited on a Sunday?
4. Where did Horace Mann live?
5. Why did Dorothea Dix campaign for better conditions?
6. How is the First Great Awakening different from the Second Great Awakening? Bibliography Page History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism
Chapter 18.2-18.4 Google Images