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Biological Discoveries - 1970's
Transcript of Biological Discoveries - 1970's
1970-1979 Discovery of Reverse transcriptase Dr. David Baltimore
Dr. Howard Temin
Dr. Renato Dulbecco 1970 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 World Events: IBM introduces the "Floppy" disk for storage
Jimi Hendrix & Janis Joplin die
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation
Treaty is ratified by
World population reaches 3.6 Billion
Cholera epidemic in Istanbul. To the Temin &Mizutani paper Reverse transcriptase (RT) is the enzymic mechanism by which complementary strands of DNA are transcribed from an RNA template.
RT was discovered simultaneously by Dr. David Baltimore, and Dr. Howard Temin and his postgraduate assistant Satoshi Mizutani.
Doctors Baltimore, Temin, and Dulbecco (whose work was tangentially related to the discovery) were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1975. The omission of Dr. Mizutani is the source of much controversy. Discovery of Genetic Basis for Circadian Rhythms Dr. Seymour Benzer with model Drosophila melanogaster Computed Tomography Scan First Introduced Sir Godfrey Hounsfield
Dr. Alan Cormack First Recombinant Cloned Organism Vietnam War ENDS Dr. Janet Mertz Dr. Paul Berg Dr. Ronald Davis Dr. Herbert Boyer Dr. Stanley Cohen Heimlich Maneuver First Demonstrated Dr. Henry Heimlich HP releseases world's first scientific hand-held calculator - $795 Publication of "Plus/Minus" Method for DNA Sequencing Dr. Frederick Sanger First Ebola Outbreaks Publication of "The Selfish Gene" M*A*S*H TV show premiers Dr. Richard Dawkins Magnetic Resonance Imaging Perfected Summer Olympics massacre in Munich Dr. Raymond V. Damadian Watergate scandal First Successful Case of Human In Vitro Fertilization Louise Brown
(the baby) Dr. Robert G. Edwards Smallpox is Eradicated Smallpox (Variola major) RESOURCES 1970's flashback - http://www.1970sflashback.com/ About.com - 20th Century History - 1970's timeline http://history1900s.about.com/od/timelines/tp/1970timeline.htm Ronald J. Konopka, working in Dr. Benzer's lab, discovers the gene that controls Drosophila's sense of time.
Konopka identifies the three alleles of the gene on the X chromosome
The Computed Tomography Scan (CT Scan) allows doctors to render numerous 2D
X-ray images, taken from various angles, as a three dimensional model
The first prototype took hours to scan and compile the images into a 3D model
Hounsfield and Cormack recieved the 1979 Nobel Prize for their invention A massive collaboration lead to the first case of recombinant cloning: eukaryotic genes were spliced into bacterial plasmids which could then be inserted into the DNA of any cell with a high degree of accuracy
This discovery lead to breakthroughs in the study of the genetic regulation of development, as well as opening up the field of genetic engineering Published in "Emergency Medicine," Dr. Heimlich describes a "subdiaphramatic thrust" which can be used to dislodge an object from an obstructed airway Pink Floyd releases 'Dark Side of the Moon To date there is some controversy as to the scientific validity of the Maneuver, based on the fact that even when properly executed, it can crack ribs or injure the xiphoid process. As a result, it is not taught as a lifesaving method in Australia. (Full Australian interview in link below) Developed with A.R. Coulson, this method of determining the sequences of bases on a strand by using using DNA polymerase with radiolabelled nucleotides allows Biologists to sequence much faster than the previous method, which relied on comparison of relative positional changes (mutations) within the genetic code
Sanger shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in sequencing, having previously won a Nobel in the same subject in 1958. He is only the fourth individual to win two Nobels in the same category First known outbreak of the Ebola virus, a member of the hantavirus family of hemorrhagic fevers
There is still no known cure for an ebola infection Also in 1976:
Richard Dawkins writes "The Selfish Gene" and coins the term "meme" for units of information that replicate like genes in selected variants
Like Ebola, there is no know cure for a persistent internet meme a modern meme (technically a recombinant clone of two memes: Cattus scientiae and Cattus severiorum) MRI technology had been in development as early as 1952
In 1977 Dr. Damadian, with the assistance of Larry Minkoff, Michael Goldsmith, and Peter Mansfield (who wrote the algorithm that allowed MRI images to be processed in minutes instead of hours), publishes the first MRI images of a live human subject
They were of a human finger and cross-section of the abdomen Louise Brown is born in Oldham General Hospital, Greater Manchester, UK, marking the first birth of a human being conceived through in vitro fertilization
Robert G. Edwards is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2010 for the development of the IVF process
IVF is not covered by OHIP in most cases, and when it is covered, related costs such as fertility drug costs, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or the storage of eggs and embryos are not covered. Airports begin screening passengers and their carry-ons The Exorcist opens in theatres Psychiatrists eliminate definition of homosexuality as a disease In December 1979 The World Health Organization declares Smallpox eradicated This marks the end of a concerted worldwide effort to wipe out the virus, one which began in 1803. The first vaccine ever developed was one to
The word "vaccine" comes from the latin for "cow," because the first vaccine was derived from the pus of a patient infected with cowpox, a close relative of smallpox Smallpox Epidemic in India causes deaths of 10,000-20,000 people Larry Minkoff in the first MRI machine "The Indomitable" World population estimated 4 billion Lucy, an almost hominid skeleton over 3 million years old is found in Africa Science Timeline - http://www.sciencetimeline.net/1961.htm The People's History - http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/1970.html Safe Drinking Water Act MICROSOFT founded JAWS opens in theaters Civil War in Lebanon Jimmy Hoffa disappears MRI video of the human mouth and throat during speech APPLE founded ROCKY opens in theaters A short clip explaining the Sanger Sequencing Method Agatha Christie & Mao Zedong die http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/healthreport/the-heimlich-manoeuvre/3053794 The Australian Broadcasting Corporation - http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/healthreport/the-heimlich-manoeuvre/3053794 Reverse Transcriptase The CN tower is completed - Tallest free standing structure in the world. Concorde airlines goes into operation Ontario Ministry of Health - http://www.health.gov.on.ca The First CTS Image Impactscan - http://www.impactscan.org/CThistory.htm World Events: World Events: World Events: World Events: World Events: World Events: World Events: World Events: The Shining is published Elvis & Chaplin die To the
Paper To The Mertz Paper Amnesty International awarded Nobel Peace Prize Star Wars opens in theaters John Paul II becomes Pope Jonestown Massacre To the
Paper Argentina wins World Cup Superman opens in theaters Sony introduces the Walkman Mother Teresa awarded Nobel Peace Prize Three mile island accident Margaret Thatcher elected Prime minister in UK French is adopted as the official language of Quebec CLICK HERE CLICK HERE This Week In Virology - http://www.twiv.tv/Temin_RT.pdf CLICK HERE http://www.twiv.tv/Temin_RT.pdf CLICK HERE The locus at which the gene may be found is named the "period" locus, as a mutation at this locus will change the periodicity of the individual's circadian rhythm
The discovery of this gene lead to the discovery of three homologous genes in mammalian genomes, as well as a deeper understanding of the human circadian rhythmic cycle http://tinyurl.com/8cwrvs7 For a full Ebola fact-sheet
compiled by the one and only just click here Want to learn more? There is some controversy
over who "invented" the MRI machine. If you want to read more about that, here's a good paper to get you started: For a full Smallpox fact-sheet
compiled by the one and only just click here http://www.who.int/topics/smallpox/en/ Want to learn more? HEY!!!