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Standing Water Ecosystem
Transcript of Standing Water Ecosystem
Ecosystem Description Average Temperature
Summer: 22°C - 4°C
Winter: 4°C - 0°C Elevation:
The still water ecosystem can be found at any elevation above sea level. Light:
The amount of light a still water ecosystem gets is based on the amount of water and the location. Ponds get light to the bottom of the floor, while lakes only receive light on the surface. Precipitation:
Still water ecosystems range 0" to 460" in rainfall. Lake Cherrapunji in India is one of the lakes that receive 460" of rainfall in the summer, but gets little to no rain in the winter. Global Warming:
The green house affect changes average precipitation an area has. Certain areas will receive more rain as the Earth heats up, while others will receive little to no rainfall. These changes in precipitation lay a great devastation on standing water ecosystems, as areas receive less and less rain they will certainly dry out many ecosystems. Water Cycle:
Sun hits the top of a still water ecosystem and evaporates the water. The water vapor drifts up, until it condensates in the troposphere forming water droplets which form clouds. The clouds store water until the water is heavy enough to fall to the ground. The falling water, or precipitation, groups together in either rivers running to the ocean or standing water. The water cycle is important in supplying the water for standing water ecosystems. Standing water ecosystems are all fresh water deposits that are still. They can be as large as lakes or as small a puddle after a rain storm. Food Web The main producers for the still water ecosystem are algae and plankton, by utilizing photosynthesis they produce the energy for this ecosystem. The next level up are the zooplankton, such as Calanoid copepods or the native water flea, who consume the plankton and algae. They are the herbivores for this ecosystem. The zooplanton’s niche is warm waters above deep chlorophyll maximum. The Macroinvertebrates are next, eating the zooplankton or plankton. Mollusks and Opossum shrimp are examples of the Macroinvertebrates in the standing water ecosystem. (Orange outline) Planktivores/Benthivores such as the Lake Sturgeon eat the Macroinvertebrates. The bottom eaters or Forage Fish are next eating the Macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, or the plankton. These fish include the Kiyi and Lake Whitefish. The Piscivores are bigger fish which eat smaller fish and are also the next on the standing water ecosystem. Examples of the Piscivores are the Rainbow Trout and the Walleye. Parasite:
In a parasitic relationship one organism is helped while the other is hurt. The main parasites in the still water ecosystem are fleas, attaching to a lost and stealing nutrients. Mutualism:
In a mutualistic relationship both organisms benefit for living with the other, such as algae and fungi who work together to form lichens. Communistic
In a Communistic relationship one creature benefits and the other is either harmfully or helpfully affected, like the pondweeds that provide shelter to fish. Decomposers:
Decomposers, such as Ingoldian Fungi, play a crucial role in the standing water ecosystem, breaking down organic materials for other organisms to use for nutrience. Plankton and algae, as producers, receive 100% of energy. Zooplankton consume algae and plankton to get 10% of energy. Macroinvertebrates consume the zooplankton to receive 1% of energy. Planktivores/Benthivores consume the Macroinvertebrates to receive .1% of energy. Bottom feeders consume Macroinvertebrates to receive .01% energy. Lastly Piscivores eat bottom feeders for .001% energy. Most energy is lost due to heating the water in a standing water ecosystem. Nitrogen Cycle:
The corpses of fish and plants produce ammonia, which burn fish's gills.
Nitrosomonas (a type of bacteria) consumes the ammonia, but produces another not as harmful toxin know as nitrite.
Nitrobacter (another bacteria) consumes the nitrite, but
produces an even less toxin, nitrate.
Anaerobic conditions will turn the nitrite into nitrogen gas.
The nitrogen cycle is completely natural to standing water ecosystems. It harms the ecosystem though when run-off, from farms or waste water, comes into standing water caring ammonia or nitrite. More ammonia means more nitrososmonas and more nitrosomonas means more nitrite, increasing the entire cycle. Human Impact Carbon Cycle:
Through diffusion carbon dioxide moves from the atmosphere to the surface of standing water ecosystems. Plants absorb this carbon well they absorb water. The plants then store the carbon. Fish eat the plants, gaining the stored carbon, and later use respiration, which breaths the carbon back into the air.
For generations people have been dumping waste, garbage, and many other toxins into standing water. This has taken its toil on the ecosystem.
Run-off of fertilizers have caused more algae to grow in standing water than is necessary. Too much algae causes murky water reducing the amount of light available to plants. With lack of light, oxygen consuming bacteria grow, lowering the total amount of oxygen in water.
Water is even being taken out of standing water ecosystems to satisfy peoples water demands. Less water less ecosystem.
Biodiversity in the standing water ecosystem is at a great decline. Lakes and ponds usually bustling with different life is losing its diversity. Over fishing and pollution has put many creatures into extinction, such as the Commanche Springs Pupfish.
A new four year project is underway to help increase awareness of the falling biodiversity rates. Biofresh will store data of all freshwater organisms, and compare different variables including past to present, regions, and interactions. The data base will even be able to produce modes. To help stop the pollution in fresh water ecosystems laws have been put into place limiting the amounts that can go into standing water. Also, all waste that goes into standing water must be treated. Environmental groups dedicated to the standing water ecosystem have popped up all over the world raising awareness, cleaning areas, and trying to get bans and harsher limits on the water. These groups include big organizations such as WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) or The Nature Conservancy. Clearly the biggest problem for standing water ecosystems is the pollutants being dumped into them. To stop the pollutants stricter laws need to be placed and maintained to discourage the majority from polluting. Farms need to be limited in pesticides and fertilizers with canals around the outside of fields to control run off, and more drainage ponds. People need to be more educated on the consequences for products they use, with green products being more frequented. Accessibility to recycling not only paper and plastic, but hazardous products such as drain cleaner, motor oil, and toxic substances, should be easily available to the public. Web
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