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World History: Chapter 2: Section 2-Egyptain Civilization

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Mike Jones

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of World History: Chapter 2: Section 2-Egyptain Civilization

World History: Chapter 2: Section 2-Egyptain Civilization
Egyptian Religion

- Egyptians inherited variety of religious beliefs & practices from ancestors

Chief God & Goddesses
- Chief God- Amon-Re- pharoah was closely linked & could conduct cetain ceremonies for the sun god
- Osiris-very important- ruled over the underworld & god of the Nile. Controlled annual flood
- Isis- had special appeal to women- believed she taught women to grind corn, weave cloth, care for children.

- Both Osiris & Isis promised faithful Egyptians life after death.
- Affected all Egyptians from highest noble to lowest peasant
Belief in an Afterlife
Fateful Test
- To win eternal life, Egyptians believed each soul had to pass a test

- Egyptian belief- the dead soul would be carried across a lake of fire to the hall of Osiris- where he would weigh the dead's heart against feather of truth

- Sinners- fed to crocodile-shaped eater of the dead
- Worth souls- Happy field of food

- Relied on Book of the Dead
- Contained spells, charms, & formulas to use in afterlfie
Belief in an Afterlife
- Believed afterlife would be much like life on earth- so they buried the dead with everything they might need for next life
- To give a soul use of its body in afterlife, Egyptians perfected
mummification- preservation of the dead

- Embalmers extracted brain of dead through nostril & took out most organs
- Body then filled with spices, dried & wrapped in linen
- Mummification took months. First for rulers & nobles, later for everyone
Belief in an Afterlife
Evidence of the Tomb of Tutankhamen
-Many tombs of Pharaohs were filled with riches & later robbed by grave robbers
- 1922, British archeologist Howard Carter found tombs of King Tut- untouched for 3,000 years
- Provided many clues & evidence of Egyptian civilization
- King Tut was just 18 year old king, but barried with many fine gifts- jewels, toys, food, chariots

Egyptian Society
- Egypt had its own class system
- Both god & human-pharaoh at the top. Next came high priest & priestesses. Then came nobles, who fought for the pharaohs. Finally, merchants, scribes, & artisans made up bottom ranks

Life of a Farmer
- Most Egyptians were peasant farmers, while others were slaves
- Off-season-peasant men expected to serve pharaoh
- Egyptian women enjoyed higher status than other's around the world.
- Not confined to the home- could work as doctors, priests, but not government jobs or scribes

Egyptian Learning
Scribes played important role in Egyptian society- kept records of ceremonies, taxes, & gifts. Also learned math, medicine, & engineering

Hieroglyphics- ancient form of Egyptian writing. Used pictograms & ideograms to communicate information.

Egyptian priests studied the heavens, mapped out constellations, & charted movement of planets. Allowed them to develop a calendar with 12 months of 30 days & 5 days ended at end of year

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