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Ch.22 The Progressive Era
Transcript of Ch.22 The Progressive Era
As a result, the government began to regulate railroads and other large businesses; under the Constitution, the federal government had the power to regulate business that crossed state lines.
In 1887, the Interstate Commerce Act was passed. It forbade practices such as pools and debates, and it set up the Interstate Commerce Commision (ICC) to oversee the railroads.
In 1890, President Harrison signed the Sherman Antitrust Act. It prohibited businesses from trying to limit or destroy competition. 1. Reform in the
Gilded Age The Progressive Era
1876-1920 2. The Progressives 3. Progressives in the White House 4. Women Win Reforms 5. Other Americans Seek Justice During the Gilded Age, reformers struggled to clean up political corruption. Two in five Americans were out of work. Many of the wealthy were wildy spending. Politics in the Gilded Age During the Gilded Age, political power was split between the two major parties; the North and the West voted Republican, and the South voted Democrat.
Elections provided great entertainment for Americans in the Gilded Age. Campaigns featured parades, picnics, and long speeches. Many Americans joined in and voted (almost 80% of aligible voters voted).
Two concerns shaped politics: the power of the rich and corruption. Many Americans feared that the wealthy may gain control over politics. Reformers blamed the spoils system. Reforming the Spoils System When a new President took office, job seekers swarmed into Washington to demand government jobs as rewards for their political support; this patronage led to more corruption.
In 1877, President Rutherford B. Hayes took steps toward ending the spoils system; he ordered an investigation to find appointed officials in the New York customhouse receiving high salaries but doing no work.
In 1881, the assassination of President James Garfield sparked new efforts to end the spoils system; but as Vice President Chester A. Arthur (a product of the spoils system) succeeded Garfield, he worked with Congress to reform the spoils system.
In 1883, Congress passed the Pendleton Act; it created the Civil Service Commission to conduct exams for federal jobs. Regulating Big Business By the 1890s, more and more Americans were speaking out against corrupt politics. Soon, a new generation of reformers would fight to remove dishonest politicians and to give voters greater power. Reforming City Governments The Muckrakers The Progressives Political Reforms City governments became corrupt because as cities grew, they needed to expand services and often, politicians accepted money to give away jobs. As a result, bribes and corruption became a way of life.
Powerful politicians gained power in many cities; they ruled county and state governments. They provided jobs and made loans to the needy. In exchange, the poor voted for the boss or his chosen candidate.
During the 1860s and 1870s, William Tweed cheated New York City out of more than $100 million. He got arrested in Spain and died in 1878; thousands of poor New Yorkers mourned for him.
In many cities, reformers set up good-government leagues. Their goal was to replace corrupt officials with honest leaders. Reformers used the press to turn public opinion against corruption. Crusading journalists became known as muckrakers.
The muckrakers exposed the truth to the public; they targeted the unfair practices of big businesses such as how the meatpacking industry uses meat from sick animals and how rats often got ground up in the meat, which was then dyed to make it seem healthy.
Muckrakers helped change public opinion. For years, middle-class Americans had ignored the need for reform. When they saw how dishonest politicians and businesses corrupted the nation—and even the food they ate—they, too, demanded change. By 1900, reformers were calling themselves Progressives; they meant that they were forward-thinking people who wanted to improve American life.
Progressives won many changes during the period from 1898 to 1917. As a result, this period is called the Progressive Era.
The Progressives came from many backgrounds and backed different causes. They were united by a belief that the ills of society could be solved.
Progressives wanted the government to act for the good of the people. Among the leading Progressives was Robert La Follette of Wisconsin. As governor, he introduced various Progressive reforms such as lowered railroad rates which helped both railroad owners and customers.
Progressives wanted voters to participate more directly in government; they called for voters to choose their party's candidate for the general election.
Other reforms gave voters more power such as the initiative, which gave voters the right to put a bill before a state legislature.
Progressives fought for other changes; they favored lowering tariffs on imported goods. They also campaigned for the Sixteenth Amendment, which gave Congress the power to pass an income tax and the Seventeenth Amendment, which allowed for the direct election of senators. (also known as money bags)
Born on April 3, 1823
Died on April 12, 1878
Boss Tweed died in jail because
he robbed the local treasury "or scamed"
them out of 45 million dollars and after that he was
charged with criminal fraud. Boss Tweed Muckraker is, primarily, a reporter or writer who investigates and publishes truthful reports involving a host of social issues, broadly including crime and corruption, and often involving elected officials, political leaders and influential members of business and industry. The term is closely associated with a number of important writers who emerged in the 1890s through the 1930s, a period roughly concurrent with the Progressive Era in the United States.
These writers focused on a wide range of issues including the monopoly of Standard Oil, cattle processing and meat packing, patent medicines, child labor, and wages, labor, and working conditions in industry and agriculture. Muckrakers Born on October 27, 1858
Died on Jan. 6, 1919
He graduated from Harvard and
joined the Republican party. He
became the Vice President
to William Mckinley who was assasinated.
So in 1901, Theodore roosevelt was elected president.
Some laws he passed were Pure Food and Drug Act, and also the Meat Inspection Act. Theodore Roosevelt Born on April 5, 1856
Died on Nov. 14, 1915
He was born a slave but freed by the
Emacipation Proclamation. He would always seek education, so he worked his way through Hampton University. He was a speaker who told about polictics in the black comunity, eventually catching the eye of our goverment. He was an educator, author, and civil rights leader. Booker T. Washington Born on Feb. 23, 1868
Died on Aug. 27, 1963
He was a famous historian
and civil right activist. He tried
every solution to rasicism
even propoganda. He was the first
African American to have a
doctorate from Harvard. Theodore Roosevelt W.E.B Dubois TR and Big Business The Square Deal Taft and the Progressives Born Nov. 12, 1815
Died on Oct. 26, 1902
She devoted her life to women
rights. She made sure a married woman
could own property. She wrote many books
inspiring women and encouraging
their independence. She was the president of women's
temparence movement and made many speeches. 1912: A Three-Way Election Elizabeth Stanton Born on Feb. 15, 1820
Died on Mar. 13, 1906
She was the co-founder of the women's
temparence. She spoke almost
a hundred speeches a year inspiring
women. She did this with Elizabeth Stanton. Susan B. anthony Wilson in the White House Working for Women's Suffrage The Nineteenth Amendment Women Win New
Opportunities The Crusade Against Alcohol African Americans Mexican Americans Asian Americans Native Americans Teddy Roosevelt—or “TR,” as he was called—came from a wealthy New York family. As a child, he suffered from asthma and was often sick.
TR was determined to end corruption and work for the public interest.
By age 26, Roosevelt was serving in the New York state legislature. Then, tragedy struck; in 1884, his mother and his young wife died on the same day. Overcome by grief, he went west to work on a cattle ranch.
After two years, Roosevelt returned to the East and to politics. He served on the Civil Service Commission.
In 1898, the United States went to war against Spain. Roosevelt led a unit of troops in some daring exploits. He returned home to a hero's welcome and was elected governor of New York.
Roosevelt had pushed for reform. As governor, he continued to work for Progressive reforms.
TR was not against big business; he saw them as a positive force.
Roosevelt saw a difference between good trusts (efficient and fair and should be let alone) and bad trusts (took advantage of workers and cheated the public).
He wanted to test the power of the government to break up bad trusts- in 1902, he asked the Attorney General to bring a lawsuit against the Northern Securities Company (the company used unfair business practices in violation of the Sherman Act)
Roosevelt also clashed with mine owners. In 1902, Pennsylvania coal miners went on strike for better pay and a shorter workday; mine owners refused to negotiate with the miners' union.
Furious at the mine owners, Roosevelt threatened to send in troops to run the mines. Finally, owners sat down with the union and reached an agreement. Roosevelt was the first President to side with labor. Roosevelt ran for President in his own right in 1904. During the campaign, he promised Americans a Square Deal- everyone from farmers and consumers to workers and owners should have the same opportunity to succeed. That promise helped Roosevelt win a huge victory.
Railroads were a main target of the Square Deal. Roosevelt urged Congress to outlaw rebates.
TR wanted reforms to protect consumers.
The Muckrakers had exposed drug companies for making false claims about medicines. They also showed how food companies added harmful chemicals to canned foods. In 1906, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act, which required food and drug makers to list ingredients on packages. It also tried to end false advertising and the use of impure ingredients
Roosevelt also took action to protect the nation's wilderness areas; he pressed for conservation.
Under Roosevelt, the government set aside about 194,000 acres for national parks. Roosevelt did not want to run for reelection in 1908. Instead, he backed William Howard Taft.
Taft's approach to the presidency was far different from Roosevelt's; he was quiet and careful; Roosevelt loved power, Taft feared it.
Taft supported many Progressive causes. He broke up even more trusts than TR had. He favored the graduated income tax, approved new safety rules for mines, and signed laws giving government workers an eight-hour day.
In 1909, he signed a bill that raised most tariffs. Progressives opposed the new law, arguing that tariffs raised prices for consumers. In 1912, TR decided to run against Taft for the Republican nomination.
Taft controlled the Republican party leadership. At its convention, the party nominated Taft.
Progressive Republicans set up a new party and chose Roosevelt as their candidate. Roosevelt's supporters became known as the Bull Moose party.
Democrats chose Woodrow Wilson, a Progressive, as their candidate. Wilson was the son of a Presbyterian minister. As a boy, he made up his mind always to fight for what he thought was right. He served as president of Princeton University and as governor of New Jersey.
Together, Taft and Roosevelt won more votes than Wilson. However, they split the Republican vote. Their quarrel helped Wilson win the election of 1912. Wilson tried to break up trusts into smaller companies.
He asked Congress to lower the tariff and pass a graduated income tax.
Congress passed the Federal Reserve Act in 1913; it set up a system of federal banks and gave the government the power to raise or lower interest rates and control the money supply.
To ensure fair competition, President Wilson also persuaded Congress to create the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in 1914. It had the power to investigate companies and order them to stop using unfair practices to destroy competitors.
Wilson signed the Clayton Antitrust Act. He had wanted a much stronger law, but the new law did ban some business practices that limited free enterprise. After the Civil War, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony renewed calls for suffrage. They had opposed the Fifteenth Amendment because it gave the right to vote to African American men but not to women.
In 1869, Stanton and Anthony set up the National Woman Suffrage Association, a group that worked for a constitutional amendment to give women the right to vote.
In most states, leading politicians opposed women's suffrage. Still, in the late 1800s, women won the right to vote in four western states.
In the early 1900s, the women's suffrage movement gained strength. More than 5 million women were earning wages outside the home. Although women were paid less than men, wages gave them some power.
After Stanton and Anthony died, a new generation of leaders took up the cause. Among the most outspoken was Carrie Chapman Catt; she became a leader of the National Woman Suffrage Association.
Across the nation, suffragists followed Catt's strategy to fight for suffrage. As the struggle dragged on, some suffragists, like Alice Paul, took more radical steps to win the vote.
Soon after Wilson became President, he met with Paul and other suffragists. Wilson did not oppose women's suffrage, but he also did not back a constitutional amendment.
By early 1918, the tide had finally turned in favor of suffrage. President Wilson agreed to support the suffrage amendment. In 1919, Congress passed the Nineteenth Amendment. It guaranteed women the right to vote. By August 1920, three fourths of the states had ratified the amendment, which doubled the number of eligible voters. Besides working for the vote, women struggled to gain access to jobs and education. Most states refused to grant women licenses to practice law or medicine.
Despite obstacles, a few women managed to get the higher education needed to enter the professions. In 1877, Boston University granted the first Ph.D. to a woman. Slowly, more women entered graduate schools and earned advanced degrees. By 1900, the nation had about 1,000 women lawyers and 7,000 women doctors.
During the late 1800s, middle-class women joined women's clubs. They raised money for libraries, schools, and parks. They pressed for laws to protect women and children, to ensure pure food and drugs, and to win the vote.
During the Progressive Era, many women became committed to reforming society. Some women entered the new profession of social work. Others campaigned to end social evils, such as child labor. The temperance movement to end the sale of alcoholic beverages began in the early 1800s. By 1900, the movement was gaining strength.
Women often led the temperance drive. Many wives and mothers recognized alcohol as a threat to their families. Drinking often caused violence and economic hardship at home.
In 1874, a group of women organized the Women's Christian Temperance Union, or WCTU. Frances Willard became its president in 1880.
Willard spoke tirelessly about the evils of alcohol. She called for state laws to ban the sale of liquor. She also worked to close saloons.
Temperance crusaders wanted a constitutional amendment banning the sale of liquor. Support for such an amendment grew after 1917, when the United States entered World War I. Temperance supporters argued that grain used to make liquor should be used instead to feed American soldiers.
Temperance leaders finally persuaded Congress to pass the Eighteenth Amendment in 1917. By 1919, three fourths of the states had ratified it. The amendment made it illegal to sell alcoholic drinks anywhere in the United States. During the Progressive Era, people of different races struggled to gain basic rights. When schools for white children were built, it did not allow other races to enter and they were sent to other schools. They recieved little education. Some protested but reformers did little to prevent such injustice. After Reconstruction, African Americans from both the North and the South lost many hard-won rights. They faced prejudice and discrimination and they were hired only for low-paying jobs.
The depression of 1893 made life even harder. Whites took out their anger on blacks. In the 1890s, more than 1,000 African Americans were lynched—murdered by mobs.
Booker T. Washington spoke for many African Americans. He called on blacks and whites to live in harmony. He urgued that African Americans must work patiently to move up in society.
W.E.B. Du Bois took a different approach than Washington. He urged that blacks fight discrimination rather than accepting it. He and other reformers organized the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Blacks and whites in the NAACP worked for equal rights for African Americans.
Most Progressives gave little thought to the problems faced by African Americans. But despite many obstacles, some African Americans succeeded. Thousands of Mexican Americans lived in the United States. They lived in areas acquired by the United States under the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo and the Gadsden Purchase. In the early 1900s, large numbers of immigrants began arriving from Mexico.
In 1910, revolution and famine swept Mexico. Thousands of Mexicanos fled into the United States. The immigrants came from all levels of Mexican society.
Mexican immigrants worked as field hands; they built railroads and dug irrigation ditches. They faced harsh conditions, and they were paid less than white workers and were denied skilled jobs.
Like other immigrants, Mexicans created their own neighborhoods, or barrios. They preserved their language and culture, celebrated traditional festivals, and shared memories of Mexico. In the 1870s, whites on the West Coast pressed Congress to pass the Chinese Exclusion Act. The Act, passed in 1882, kept Chinese from settling in the United States. With no new immigration, the Chinese population declined.
The demand for cheap labor remained high. White employers on the West Coast and in Hawaii therefore got around the Chinese Exclusion Act by hiring workers from other Asian countries, mainly the Philippines and Japan.
More than 100,000 Japanese entered the United States in the early 1900s. Most had migrated to Hawaii to work on sugar plantations.
Asian workers were paid less than whites and were denied promotion to skilled jobs.
Prejudice against immigrants from Asia remained high. In California, the Japanese were barred from owning land and from many economic pursuits. Asian students were forced to attend separate schools from white students.
In 1907, Roosevelt reached a “Gentlemen's Agreement” with Japan. Japan would stop any more workers from going to the United States. The United States, in exchange, would allow Japanese women to join their husbands who were already in the country. During the Progressive Era, Native Americans felt the effects of the Dawes Act of 1887. The act had divided reservation lands into family plots. With these lands, Indians were supposed to become farmers and enter mainstream American life.
Much of the land the families received was unsuited to farming. Many Indians had no farming tradition.
Many Native Americans simply sold their lands to speculators at very low prices. Within a short time after the Dawes Act became effective, speculators had swindled Native Americans out of millions of acres of reservation land.
In the early 1900s, a new generation of Native American leaders emerged. One group set up the Society of American Indians. The Society worked for social justice and tried to educate white Americans about Indian life. Gilded Age- the period in American history lasting from the 1870s to the 1890s, marked by political corruption and extravagant spending
Civil Service- all federal jobs except elected offices and those in the military
Square Deal- Theodore Roosevelt's campaign promise that all groups would have an equal opportunity to succeed
Suffragist- person who worked for women's right to vote
Lynched- for a mob to illegally seize and execute someone On September 14, 1901, President McKinley died when he got shot in the chest and doctors were unable to locate the bullet. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt became President. At age 42, he was the youngest President to take office. He was also a strong supporter of Progressive goals. Women were fighting for suffrage; they picketed the White House in 1917 and were send to solitary confinement. They then tried a new tactic: the hunger strike. In response, jailers fed them through tubes forced down their throats. During the Progressive Era, women continued their long battle for the right to vote. They also worked for other reforms, including pure food laws, an end to child labor, and a ban on the sale of alcohol.