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Transcript of Rhetoric
Three Main Strategies
Rhetoric is the art of writing or speaking effectively
Aristotle says rhetoric is "the ability, in each particular case, to see
the available means of persuasion."
Refers to the message of the speech
Information, reasons, evidence, data
What's the message? What do they want you to believe?
Refers to the audience's reaction or anticipated reaction
Beliefs, values, experience
How does it make you feel?
Refers to the believability of the speaker
Authority, credibility, correctness, and eloquence
Why do you believe this person?
I will show you some images. For each image, write down:
How you are affected by the image: your emotional and or intellectual response, and what it is about the image that you think drove that response?
What rhetorical style do you think it uses the most and why you think so?
A claim persuades, argues, convinces, proves, or provocatively suggests something to a reader who may or may not initially agree with you.
Counterclaims deny the validity of a claim.
Consider potential counterclaims and counterarguments.
Address counterclaims in your writing.
The decrease in crime in inner cities can be traced to Roe vs. Wade, which legalized abortion and made it easily and cheaply available to women in poor socioeconomic conditions and whose offspring were most likely to grow up, poor, under-educated, unemployed, and immersed in violence and crime.
The cotton gin, combine harvester, and tractor are all
examples of devices that changed the face of agriculture
Disgruntled lone killers who shoot up schools or workplaces are nothing new. The recent case in Norway is, in many ways, like the Bath school bombing that occurred in Michigan in the 1920s.
I will discuss the seven habits of highly effective teens: Be proactive, Begin with the end in mind, Put first things first, Think win-win, Think first to understand then to be understood, Synergize, Sharpen the saw
Government declared war on drugs . . . Prison terms for
possession increased . . . Prison populations increased . . . Prison overcrowding a major problem . . . Selective parole procedures instituted for minor drug offenses
Mass layoffs and the resulting increasing in
unemployment have led to an increase in violent crime in
most urban areas.
Effect to cause
Cause to Effect
The way words are used to engage the attention of the audience and increase the effectiveness of a message.
All of these fall under pathos, because they are trying to increase how the audience responds to the message.
The conscious and purposeful
replication of words or phrases in
order to make a point. There are
many forms of repetition.
The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines.
"To raise a happy, healthy, and
hopeful child, it takes a family; it
takes teachers; it takes clergy; it
takes business people; it takes
community leaders; it takes those
who protect our health and safety. It
takes all of us." --Hillary Clinton
The last word or set of words
in one sentence, clause, or phrase
is repeated one or more times at
the end of successive sentences,
clauses, or phrases.
A day may come when the courage of men fails, when we forsake our friends and break all bonds of fellowship, but it is not this day.
An hour of wolves and shattered shields, when the age of men comes crashing down, but it is not this day! This day we fight!! By all that you hold dear on this good Earth, I bid you stand, Men of the West!!!
Comparing the similarities of two typically unlike ideas without using like or as
A comparison between two things, typically on the basis of their structure and for the purpose of explanation or clarification.
" Just as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and carried their "thus saith the Lord" far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, and just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town. Like Paul, I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for aid." --Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Diction or word choice is a style of speaking or writing determined by the words of a speaker or a writer.
Denotation: dictionary definition of the word
Connotation: the associations that go with the word; its "baggage"
Will: “We’re going to steal the ship? That ship?
Jack: “Commandeer. We’re going to commandeer that ship. Nautical term.” --Pirates of the Caribbean
Most academic argument is bounded by what is considered debatable or up for inquiry within a discipline.
Claims of fact:
Argue what the definition of something is or whether something is a settled fact.
Claims of cause and effect:
Argue that one person, thing, or event caused another thing or event to occur.
Claims about value: These are claims made of what something is worth, whether we value it or not, how we would rate or categorize something.
Claims about policy:
These are claims that argue for or against a certain solution or policy approach to a problem.
supported by evidence
based on research, evidence, testimony, and reasoning
answers the "so what?' question.
supported by other opinions.
ends in a "Because it just is..." rationale
doesn't have larger relevance
Claim vs. Opinion
Comparing the similarities of two typically unlike ideas by using like or as
Metaphor: "I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided; and that is the lamp of experience." --Patrick Henry
Simile: Experience guides my feet like a lamp guides a darkened path in the night.
Asked just for effect or emphasis on some point discussed
No real answer is expected
May have obvious answers, but the questioner asks rhetorical questions to lay emphasis to the point.
"Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation? Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled, that force must be called in to win back our love? Let us not deceive ourselves, sir. " --P. Henry