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Lexical errors & mistakes
Transcript of Lexical errors & mistakes
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
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(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
take a breath take a step
make a move
play a game fake a smile
break a vow
stake a claim say a word
Collocation - a combination of words that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance
Are you happy with the idea of explaining less and exemplifying more?
take a breath
bomb went off
Struggle to use it
Extensive noun vocab
a) It gives me great pleasure to extend warm / hot greetings to all those celebrating this day.
b) A flock / herd of 271 sheep worth up to £25000 has been stolen from a field in Ramsbottom.
c) For the last five years the Dutch economy has increased / grown faster than Britain, France, or Germany.
d) Dudley Police have launched an inquiry following an incident in which a man received stab injuries / wounds.
e) Dine in our open / fresh -air restaurant set in a traditional wood building.
TASK 3 - Answers
More examples rather
than lengthy explanations
Think of "difficult" word pairs.
e.g. home vs. house
Then think of a few examples to illustrate the difference between the two.
house vs. home
job vs. work
watch vs. see
comfortable vs. convenient
study vs. learn
mistake vs. error
electric vs. electrical
travel vs. trip
Some pairs that often cause difficulty
Learners do not have enough exposure
Learners need guidance
Learner L2 influences their production
Why is collocation important ?
knee / head injury
received / sustained serious injuries
escape without injury
He was badly injured in the crash
a gunshot wound
a flesh wound
multiple stab wounds
a wounded soldier
He was deeply wounded by her fierce criticism
Many words are used in a limited set of collocations and knowing these is part of what is involved in knowing the words.
Language knowledge is collocational knowledge.
Lexical Approach proposed in 1990s by Michael Lewis:
Emphasis on "chunks"
Prototypical rather than atypical
Grammar and vocab. are interdependent
about 30 essays written by advanced speakers
judged by native speakers
considerable difficulty in producing collocations
- lowest number of mistakes
- most mistake-prone
e.g. pay attention, fail an exam
e.g. exert control, perform a task
Learner at all levels produce far fewer collocations than NS
Errors persist even at higher levels
Errors mainly due to L1 transfer
Laufer & Waldman (2011)
Allows learners process and produce language at a faster rate
Helps learners move from receptive to productive vocabulary knowledge
Weak Medium Strong
Linguistic voids are unavoidable
English is the richest language
(approx. 500,000 words)
invite friends for dinner
Would you like to order?
reserve a room
book our flights
shrug your shoulders
honk your horn
fail a test
achieve a goal
reach a compromise
perform an experiment
make a mistake
see a film
a) They are responsible on the kids after they finish to learn.
b) It’s the movie about people who live in England at the last century.
c) The study price is very high.
d) Sorry I lated.
e) .. to get a new push in my working perspective.
f) I exaggerated at the gym and now my back is occupied.
g) Otherwise the impolite behaviour will lead to the good manners extinction.
h) I like my roommate; she is comfortable.
i) The doctor measured my heat .
TASK 5 – Learner errors
Words are not used ALONE
It is more efficient to learn THE WHOLE
and break it into parts than vice versa
Learning collocations promotes ACCURACY and FLUENCY and faster COMPREHENSION