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Transcript of KNOWLEDGE
A Teacher's Guide to the
12 Knowledge Building Principles
What is it?
What is it?
What is this?
What are "Improvable Ideas?"
What is it?
What is it?
REAL IDEAS, AUTHENTIC IDEAS
COMMUNITY KNOWLEDGE, COLLECTIVE
What is it?
"All participants are legitimate contributors to the shared goals of the community; all take pride in knowledge advances achieved by the group. The diversity and divisional differences represented in any organization do not lead to separations along knowledge have/have-not or innovator/non-innovator lines. All are empowered to engage in knowledge innovation. "(Scardamalia, 2002)
http://ikit.org/fulltext/2003_TheKSN.htm Scardamalia, M. (2003). Knowledge Society Network (KSN): Toward an expert society for democratizing knowledge.
http://www.neh.gov/humanities/2005/septemberoctober/feature/democratizing-knowledge ( a teacher's thoughts about democratizing access to knowledge)
(The current stage in democratizing knowledge and information)
(Democratizing access to knowledge: find out what open educational resources have to offer)
SYMMETRIC KNOWLEDGE ADVANCE
PERVASIVE KNOWLEDGE BUILDING
CONSTRUCTIVE USES OF AUTHORITATIVE SOURCES
KNOWLEDGE BUILDING DISCOURSE
EMBEDDED, CONCURRENT TRANSFORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
What is it?
Examples in practice:
Self assessment and self-reflections
Ongoing portfolios with embedded self and group assessment
Facilitator-student/ facilitator-group oral discussions about group goals
group anchor charts to support such group discussions
Belief mode processes and belief mode question facilitation
Discussing objectives and what was learned and innovated AFTER and DURING
as opposed to standardized objectives at the beginning
Knowledge builders are adept at synthesizing new ideas out of existing ones, hence the notion of transcending, or “rising above” the existing state of knowledge. “Rise aboves” are generally rare, as they represent breakthroughs in design problems, leading to further advances in knowledge.
http://kbc2.edu.hku.hk/?page_id=2490 (see "Phase 3 - Deepening Inquiry"
Knowledge Building views all ideas as having the potential to be improved. As communities of learners develop ideas to solve design problems, it is generally understood that the ideas will be refined through collaboration. Even after the immediate design problem has been solved, Knowledge Builders agree that new evidence will lead to further improvement and modification of their previous ideas.
http://www.curriculum.org/LSA/october2013.shtml (see "Principles of Knowledge Building" video)
Knowledge problems arise from efforts to understand the world. Ideas produced or appropriated are considered as real as concrete objects that are touched and felt. Problems are ones that learners really care about – they are usually very different from problems presented in textbooks and puzzles.
Shared Ownership of Assessment: Student Portfolios in a Second Grade Classroom: http://www.otterbein.edu/Files/pdf/Education/JTIR/VolumeV/Ryan%20final.pdf
Assessment is embedded in the ongoing, everyday workings of knowledge-building learning communities and is used to identity obstacles to their group goals and knowledge advancement. It is of a higher quality than external assessors because it is reflective, holistic, isn’t limited by standardized objectives and is transformative.
Socio-cognitive dynamics: Knowledge building is not confined to particular occasions or subjects but pervades mental life—in and out of school.
Technological dynamics: Knowledge Forum encourages knowledge building as the central and guiding force of the community's mission, not as an add-on. Contributions to collective resources reflect all aspects of knowledge work
- Video where students reflect on what they understand about pervasive knowledge building.
Reeve, Richard, Sharkawy, Azza. (2012). Science Education for Social Justice Using the
Knowledge-Building Communities Model. Queen’s University Faculty of
Lossman, Hans, So, Hyo-Jeong. (2010). Toward pervasive knowledge
building discourse: analyzing online and offline discourses of primary
science learning in Singapore. Education Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12564-009-9063-7
Banset, Liz, Wilhite, Myra. Learning Outside the Box: Making Connections between Co-Curricular Activities
and the Curriculum Myra Wilhite and Liz Banset, University of
Nebraska. Lincoln. A publication of The Professional & Organizational Development Network in Higher Education. University of Nebraska, Lincoln. http://ucat.osu.edu/OSU_users/essays/v10n5.html
Integrated, Co-curricular, Extracurricular Project Ideas. Augsburg College.
Tools for concurrent, embedded, and transformative assessment of knowledge building processes and progress (Donoahue, Philips, Scardamalia & Teplovs): http://chris.ikit.org/cscl2007-339final2.pdf
Environmental Studies and KB?
It is important to foster idea diversity as It integral for knowledge advance. Provide a rich environment where students can share and understand ideas, how they are similar and contrast so that new ideas can evolve.
Diversity and Ideas in the Porous Community:
Mike Brown at TEDxWyandotte -
Resources for the Classroom:
- Instead of debates in the classroom, try "constructive controversy" to have a engaging dialogue about issues/topics that will help lead to knowledge building and advancement
- Use of graphic orgnanizers like webs and venn diagrams to encourage idea divesity
- Try the "6 Thinking Hat" activity. Each students must think with a different 'cap.' With each specific role, it will help diversify the ideas
This involves networking among community members from different areas of expertise. The exchange of knowledge across the discourses results in the reciprocal promotion and advancement of knowledge between the members. Students with access to expert and professional discourses will be more effective in their modeling of expert practice. Teachers with access to discourse and practice of their students can develop deeper understanding of their students’ needs and goals.
In order for effective knowledge advancement, students must have access to up-to-date disciplinary knowledge. Students need to formulate their interpretation of meaning through consulting authoritative sources, as well as upholding a critical stance toward those sources.
"Participants set forth their ideas and negotiate a fit between personal ideas and ideas of others, using contrasts to spark and sustain knowledge advancement rather than depending on others to chart that course for them. They deal with problems of goals, motivation, evaluation, and long-range planning that are normally left to teachers or managers." (Scardamalia, 2002)
Instead of teachers' cognitive authority in the classroom, students take responsibility for their own thinking and problem solving. It involves students' initiatives, self-regulation, collaboration and awareness of the responsibility of their actions on others.
http://ikit.org/fulltext/2002AERAAnn.pdf (epistemic agency and knowledge building)
https://www.academia.edu/374182/Shared_Epistemic_Agency_An_Empirical_Study_of_An_Emergent_Construct (shared epistemic agency in knowledge creation perspective)
http://edtalks.org/video/ten-trends-2014-agency ( "agency" is one of the top ten trends in future education)
STUDENT SPEAKER'S CORNER
What are your students saying?
Post them down below!
What is it?
Community members share responsibility and ownership of the collective knowledge advanced, while supporting the growth of individuals within their culture of learning. The group shares collective goals while valuing the diversity of expertise and perspectives, and does not expect all learners to acquire the same body of knowledge at the same time.
Collective Cognitive Responsibility for the Advancement of Knowledge: http://ikit.org/fulltext/2002CollectiveCog.pdf
Scaffolding Knowledge Communities in the Classroom: New Opportunities in the Web 2.0 Era: http://webspace.oise.utoronto.ca/~petersv/files/PetersSlotta2010.pdf
Learning Communities in Classrooms: A Reconceptualization of Educational Practice: http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic541040.files/Bielaczyc%20and%20Collins-Learning%20Communities%20in%20Classrooms.pdf
Designs for collective cognitive responsibility in knowledge-building communities: http://tccl.rit.albany.edu/papers/Collective_JLS_zhang_revised4.pdf
Community building activities that sustainably strengthen the inter-relationships, trust and openness between students
Collective presentation of innovated artifacts (all their names on it; shared ownership)
Critical group discussions about topics like competition, individualism, collectivism, shared ownership, etc.
Civic and global citizenship education activities that strengthen sense of collective responsibility to others, oneself and the world
Co-creation and implementation of group collective norms and principles, i.e. asking why” (evidence) when giving an opinion; advance knowledge for the value of all society, not just the individual or a small group; treating all ideas as improvable; taking responsibility for actions because they impact the group
Examples in practice:
Documentaries for teachers (and some ideas can be taken from curriculum guides) : Catch a Fire: http://www.amnestyusa.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/catchafirecurriculum.pdf ; http://www.amnestyusa.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/bornintobrothelscurriculum.pdf
Lesson Plan resources : http://resources.tiged.org/personal-and-collective-responsibility-activity-1-4-12 ; http://www.nationalww2museum.org/assets/pdfs/lesson-plan-2.pdf
TRIBES Learning Communities: http://tribes.com/
Knowledge building discourse
Knowledge building discourse is more than the sharing of knowledge. It helps to refine and advance knowledge by discursive practices among community members. Revision, reference and annotation encourage participants to identify shared problems and gaps. The ultimate goal of knowledge building discourse is to facilitate explicit knowledge which cannot be generated by individuals but by the community as a whole.
Anderson, R., Baxter, L. A., Cissna, K. N. (eds.) (2004). Dialogue: Theorizing difference in communication studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Conklin, J. (2005). Dialogue mapping: Building shared understanding of wicked problems. New York: Wiley.
Tsoukas, H. (2009) Creating organizational knowledge dialogically: An outline of a theory. In T. Rickards, M. A. Runco, and S. Moger (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Creativity. London: Routledge.
Walton, D. (1998). The new dialectic: Conversational contexts of argument. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.