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MARS One

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jamal hakim

on 8 June 2015

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Transcript of MARS One

In an experiment we did with hydrogen peroxide 3% (L) and manganese dioxide (S) (which acted as a catalyst) we "created" oxygen. We use the term created loosely because all we did was separate the oxygen from the hydrogen in hydrogen peroxide. The reaction happened quickly but the downside is that the oxygen we created was non-renewable and the amount of materials required to reach an adequate result is tremendous. Our plan to fuel Mars with oxygen is to create a sort of greenhouse effect through a variety of vegetation that will after an extremely long time hopefully produce enough oxygen for humans to breathe on Mars. In the meanwhile, our settlers will be using technology already utilized by NASA within our shuttle to which we are traveling to Mars we will use the process of electrolysis which works by running an electric current through water which separates it into its two base elements hydrogen and oxygen. To breathe on Mars itself the settlers will have to use oxygen tanks which work by storing compressed oxygen into tanks which the settlers then breathe.


How Are We Going To Create Oxygen? MINI ACTIVITY #3
Out Of All Of The Planets In The Solar System, Why Mars?
WHY EXPLORE ?
On December 2013, Mars One was announced to the world, a group of four people would be going on a one way trip to Mars.
The journey to mars will take 6 to 8 months. During these months, astronauts will spend everyday together in a very small place.
Mars one plans to be sending another set of crew members every two years
Mars One developed a realistic plan to establish a permanent settlement on Mars. The plan is built upon existing technologies available from private suppliers. Mars One is not an aerospace company and will not supply mission equipment. All equipment will be developed by third party suppliers and will be made in established facilities. In this presentation we will tell you a bit about about how we would go about colonizing Mars if it were up to us.

STEPPING OFF EARTH
Settling on mars will be one of the easier objectives, but before we can even get there, We must first get off of Earth. We have been sending people and probes into space for more than 60 years, a manned Mars mission would be on a much larger scale than almost anything humans have done before. As we speak their is no current rocket fuel that is well tested and does not need a large consumption tank that can a take us to mars. Also it will be quite the struggle going through earths gravitational pull holding such a large load all at once.
Chemically-fueled rocket
will be able to get us to mars, and it is what NASA intends to use.
When its comes to NASA, they will be using a liquid propellant .we will be relying on oxidizer and fuel to lift the space craft off earth. An oxidizer is a type of chemical which a fuel requires to burn. Most types of burning on Earth uses oxygen. However in space there is no oxygen or other oxidizers so rockets need to carry up their own oxidizers. The oxidizer and fuel are put into two separate tanks with the right proportions. when its time for lift off the two elements would be pumped into the combustion chamber where they will be combined, burned and squeezed through the nozzle to produce thrust. The only problem with liquid propellants is that they have to burn a lot of fuel making it necessary to have a very large tank. Also with us going to mars we will even need a larger tank depending on how fast we want to get their, but right now this our best option.
What To Prepare For When Going To Mars:
Things That Should Be Waiting For Us On Mars
Every second that we are on Mars is valuable and revolutionary. So by the time we arrive on mars we should be able to settle and adapt as quick as possible without wasting anytime or waiting. Meaning before we get to mars their should be already things their and
waiting for us
such as
A ready and working Green House
Several moxie rovers
Solar panels
green house gas factories
JOURNEY TO MARS
Green Houses On

MARS
As we all know, the Martian soil does not have the attributes required to grow crops and plants. All the prepackaged food that was sent from earth, is finite so it will be finished sooner or later. Meaning that the first settlers would need to start producing food and that can not be done without a green house to protect the plants from the poisonous soil, radiation and the lack of gravity. A few years before humans set off to Mars we should be sending pieces and sets of the greenhouse to mars, so the rovers can assemble, and by the time humans come they can simple grow their plants in the greenhouse just like their on earth. We can also create a 3D printer so resouces can be made.
MARS
MOXIES
The atmosphere on Mars consists of 96% carbon dioxide and less than 0.2% oxygen. Earth has about 21% oxygen. If astronauts tried breathing the air on Mars, they would quickly suffocate. When it comes to space exploration , the main thing humans need is oxygen. MIT scientist are starting to develop a machine/rover that can make/recycle oxygen called the Mars Oxygen In situ resource utilization Experiment (MOXIE ). the idea is quite simple. The rover will consume carbon dioxide from the mars atmosphere, (carbon dioxide is made of one carbon and two oxygen) then the moxie will isolate each atoms and combine only the two oxygen atoms creating oxygen (O2) and simply releasing it back it the atmosphere. MIT scientist knows that will only help the atmosphere by a millimeter. the moxie is intend to produce 20 grams of oxygen per hour. Which is nothing helpful for human life but the idea is if the plan works well enough. the scientist will send a larger moxie that can produce 100 times more oxygen ( 2 kg) per hour


SOLAR PANELS
GREENHOUSE GAS EFFECT FACTORIES
HOT AND COLD TEMPERATURES
SANDSTORMS
HEALTH PROBLEMS AND SICKNESS
PSYCHOLOGICAL Issues
No Contact With Earth
Giving Up Religion
Being Filmed For A Reality Show
Taking Up The Ideas Of Communism
LANDING ON MARS
Out of all the challenges and problems that NASA has to go through to create a civilization on mars. We believe the most underrated and crucial challenge is simply landing the spacecraft on mars. Currently mankind does not have the capabilities or technology to land people on the red planet. The 2012 curiosity rover was the largest object our current technology could land on mars, only weighing 0.9 tonnes. Which needed a revolutionary never before seen supersonic parachute and downward-facing rockets. Now thinking of the spacecraft needed to be sent to mars, will at least weighing 40 tonnes. The curiosity rover is nothing in comparison to a human spacecraft. By it weighing so much the mars thin atmosphere will not be able to deploy the parachute and catch the air needed for a soft landing, currently their is no solution or progress being made about how the landing on mars will take shape.
Society's Beliefs
THE MARTIAN GOVERNMENT
LAWS ON MARS
CHEMICALLY FUELED ROCKET PROPELLANTS
Out of all of the planets in our solar system. Why did we choose Mars to potentially inhabit? There are many reasons for this but in this presentation we will go over a few of the most important. Based on proximity there are two planets beside Earth, one on each side, those planets are: Venus and Mars. As it is, to travel to a planet right beside Earth, Mars in this case, will take about 260 days, imagine if we traveled to a further planet; the psychological effect on the astronauts would be immense. That leaves Venus, Venus is actually closer to Earth than Mars is but Venus is not a good fit for colonization. The temperature surface of Venus is hotter than 600 degrees Celsius, which can burn lead (VERY HOT), just to help you envision what Venus is capable of, here is an example. The pressure of Venus would squeeze a book flat and the sulfuric acid clouds would dissolve it, also, the ground on Venus is poisonous. Mars is similar to Earth in many ways, having many of the same systems that characterize Earth, Mars has an atmosphere (air), a hydrosphere (water), a cryosphere (ice), and a lithosphere (geology) that all interact to produce the Martian environment. Other than being the best option based on proximity, and its similarity to Earth; Mars also already has rover technology already positioned on its surface so we have a good idea of what to expect.


One thing humans have asked since, probably the beginning of time is, why are we here? We may never know the answer to this question but what we do know is that we have questions.

We believe the value and necessity of continuing to explore and colonize space is important for us because it is the next big step for human philosophy, evolution and history. Humans are driven to explore the unknown, discover new worlds, push the boundaries of our scientific and technical limits, and then push further. Earth’s resources are running out, For humans to move forward they cannot fix what has been done and recycle. They have to give new birth. Humans have to find an alternative for when Earth has run out of resources and has no value. This can be the beginning of a new era.

The challenge of space travel and learning how to colonize planets, will encourage nations around the world to work together to achieve our human objective. Now money should not be a concern, even though some say, that money could be used to help our world's problems. We believe NASA is not just throwing buckets of money into space, that money is used for workers and technology development to helps us understand the amazing complex world that we live on.

As it stands right now our whole civilization is on earth, if somethings happens to it like a natural disaster, comet or even nuclear warfare, human civilization can be gone for ever. All of our art, our music, our literature, our science, even our very genes could be wiped out. Unless, there are a few humans living elsewhere in the solar system that give us insurance for humanity.

CRIMINAL ACTS

First time offenders

for severe crimes
will be incarcerated for a life sentence of ten years including rehabilitation from our psychology bureau of mental and psychiatric investigation. Repeat offenders for severe crimes will be sentenced to death by strangulation (hanging).

First time offenders

for major crimes
will be incarcerated for five years, second time offenders for a life sentence of ten years; repeat offenders hanged.

First time offenders for minor crimes
will be let off with a warning, second time offenders will be incarcerated for a period of three days, third time offenders for three weeks, fourth time offenders for six weeks, fifth time offenders for twelve weeks, and repeat offenders for a year.

Severe Crimes include:
murder of any degree, rape, child pornography,

Major Crimes include:
theft above the dollar specified amount of 10,000, attempt at murder, child abandonment, domestic violence, tax evasion, resisting arrest, possessing a firearm

Minor Crimes include:
Practicing a religion pre-colonization, loitering, Harassing Tolu


List Of Rules: (Pre-Colonization)

All citizens must work a minimum of eight hours a day

All citizens must not commit acts of any varied degree of murder or rape

Government must ensure equality towards all citizens

All laws must be executed by a Judicial Court of law that the government has no authority over.

The environment must not be tainted with garbage or other harmful things.

Citizens must not discriminate among each other due to features like, sex, race, age, weight, etc.

Citizens must not practice any religion. (In hopes of preserving equality)

All firearms or weapon of any kind are banned



List Of Rules: (Pro-Colonization)

All citizens must pay a forty percent tax of their annual earnings

Citizens may practice whichever religion they please without sharing their beliefs publicly (without forcing other people to join their religion)

All citizens must work a minimum of eight hours a day

All citizens must not commit acts of any varied degree of murder or rape

Government must ensure equality towards all citizens

All laws must be executed by a Judicial Court of law that the government has no authority over.

The environment must not be tainted with garbage or other harmful things.

Citizens must not discriminate among each other due to features like, sex, race, age, weight, etc.

All firearms or weapon of any kind are banned

List Of Rights: (Pre-Colonization)

All citizens have the right to equality

All citizens have the right to a fair and quick public trial by an impartial court

All citizens have the right to remain silent upon arrest

All citizens have the right to express themselves freely

All citizens have the right to
think freely

All citizens have the right to
their own opinion




List Of Rights: (Pro-Colonization)

All citizens have the right to equality

All citizens have the right to a fair and quick public trial by an impartial court

All citizens have the right to remain silent upon arrest

All citizens have the right to express themselves freely

All citizens have the right to think freely

All citizens have the right to their own opinion

All citizens have the right to a peaceful gathering or protest

All citizens have the right to practice whichever religion they please without sharing their beliefs publicly

All citizens have the right to free healthcare, education, tuition, security, etc.


What Kind Of People Are We Going To Send To Mars?
How Are We Going To Survive The Climate And The Sandstorms?
There are two types of niches the generalist niche and the specialist niche. A generalist is someone who has knowledge of many different areas and is satisfactory in those areas.whereas a specialist focuses on one subject and is quite advanced in that subject but has no knowledge of anything outside the scope of their subject. Our idea is to initially only send four people to Mars, a specialist in psychiatry to keep the crew sane, a doctor who is a generalist in medicine and two generalists in structural design . These people would have to be dedicated and willing to give up all they hold dear to go to another planet; they would also have to give up their religion. Our initial settlers will also have to be physically fit and capable of doing manual labor. There are no specific criteria for which gender will make up our crew, those who best fit our criteria will be sent to Mars.
How Will We Utilize Satellite Technology?
Our Spacesuits are going to replicate that of NASA's exactly. NASA calls their spacesuits EMU's (Extravehicular Mobility Units) and NASA describes these as a one person spacecraft. As they should. These suits are designed to withstand temperatures from minus 250 degrees Fahrenheit to temperatures of positive 250 degrees Fahrenheit. (250 degrees Fahrenheit is approximately 121.11 degrees Celsius.) Unlike that of Russia's these suits are actually mobile. At noon the temperature on Mars may reach a high of about 70 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees Celsius) or a low of about -225 degrees Fahrenheit (-153 degrees Celsius) at the poles. Near the mid latitude of Mars the average temperature would be about -50 degrees Celsius and a night time minimum of -60 degrees Celsius. The suits alone can manage these temperatures without you having to take shelter within a spacecraft. The suits can also withstand sandstorms for the most part except we still do not know how martian dust will affect humans. This should not matter though because the suits are designed air tight and even the ultra thin martian sand should not be able to penetrate them.
The Sun is a reliable, robust, and plentiful energy source. Using solar panels is the best choice for Mars One since it takes away the requirement to develop and launch a nuclear reactor, thereby saving time and money while avoiding the risks and concerns of the use of a nuclear power source.
Thin film solar (photovoltaic) panels will power the Mars One settlement. These are less efficient than those more commonly used in aerospace, but have the advantage of being extremely light, and are thus easily transportable. The first settlement will install approximately 3000 square meters of power generating surface area, around our dome.

Because Mars is approximately 52% farther from the Sun, the amount of solar energy entering its upper atmosphere per unit area (the solar constant) is only around 43.3% of what reaches the Earth's upper atmosphere. However, due to the much thinner atmosphere, more solar energy reaches the surface. The maximum solar irradiance on Mars is about 590 W/m² compared to about 1000 W/m² at the Earth's surface. Also around year occurring dust storms in Mars may block sunlight for weeks at the time.

We will use satellites to communicate from Mars to Earth, we basically just copied this same idea from Mars One because it is one of the only ways that this can be done. Mars One plans to utilize two satellites, one over Mars, and the other in the Sun's orbit. Both of these Satellites are extremely crucial in communicating with Earth. The one above Mars is a satellite that is fixed in its position and it updates Earth with the activities on Mars, Earth reads these signals through large Satellite dishes, this signal only gets interrupted when Mars is in between the Satellite and the Earth. The second satellite will be in the Sun's orbit about 60 degrees behind the Earth, so the Signals can be relayed by the second Satellite when the first is not working.
Our idea is to build small automated factories that produce super greenhouse gases with no ozone depleting side effects, although these gases would be unwelcomed on earth, for the martians, it would be an efficient way to trap heat.
Within a few decades, we would raise mars on more than 10 degree sunburned and if we do that, that would cause massive amounts of carbon dioxide that is currently absorbed into the martian soil to start to out gas.

Our government will exactly replicate the Canadian government except for very few key differences. Like the Canadian government the Martian government will have a parliament and a senate but the difference being that every government representative (including Senators) will have to be voted in by constituents. If any government representative is guilty of corruption in any way shape or form, in completely individualized concern, a court of law may sentence them to a maximum sentence of death and a minimum sentence of one year in jail.

All decisions about possible laws or removing of laws will be enacted by the government, all laws must be executed by a Judicial Court of law that the government has no authority over, and any financial considerations will go through the government which will have to announce the law to its citizens and they must have a vote, if fifty percent who actually voted are not in favor then the idea will not pass; to recap, first the idea will have to go through the government, then the Senate, and then the actual citizens. This same process applies to all laws.

We would have a counsel of some sort who make all of the decisions about how to evenly disperse resources and even if none of them were to be corrupted that still leaves the problem on how we are going to provide an incentive for our middle class to actually work if they do not have a concrete way of knowing what it is they have earned through their labor and services.


Our society believes in being individual and having unique ideas but at the same time being a part of society and giving to the less fortunate; above all, our society values honesty and accountability
How Will Satellite Technology Prove Useful?
Edward Snowden would be a major symbol in our society. A symbol representing the fact that everyone is equal and entitled to the truth; instead of being considered an enemy he would be commended for his actions, risking his life to tell the good people of America the truth about the lies they are being fed.

There will be no war because our society will be united under a world state with a world council, there will still be countries and a representative from each country (basically, the president of each country) will brief everyone about the state of their country. If two or more countries share hostility towards each other it is the job of the council to sort out their issues without resorting to war or violence.

Our society believes what they do because nothing will be kept from them and school will be a form of conditioning where kids are taught that war is but pointless destruction, without cooperation one country can not control another forever. Once you begin it will not stop.


A condition if you are running for government is that you must take a personality test, this test will determine your views on war, corruption, and other harmful things to society; if you fail the test and you do believe in those things you can not run for a position in government. This way, you can still believe what you want to believe and peace will finally be a reachable goal because only those who will have a positive influence on society will be in control.

Not only can our initial settlers still entertain themselves through the internet, and talk with their family and friends; we are also considering turning the life of our settlers into a reality show in hopes of raising more funds. If there are any problems those on Mars could notify us and we could help them. There are some things we must address however, if you send an email it can take anywhere from 3 minutes to 22 minutes to actually reach the other end, and about 6 minutes for you to get a reply, despite this fact, it is still probably our best option.
MARTIAN ECONOMY
Much like the state of our economy the government itself will start off having the central beliefs of communism and then slowly evolve into a society with democratic beliefs after the first one thousand people have colonized there.

Our economy would be centrally planned and would provide all essential services to our citizens for free, to do this we will take forty percent of their annual earnings in tax, the services we would offer include but are not limited to: healthcare, education, law enforcement, tuition, psychological reform,oxygen supply, housing space, etc. Our citizens would still have incentive to work hard and compete with each other because we are not introducing progressive taxation into our economy so in theory, the more money they make the more money they will net.

Our minimum wage will also start at the Canadian equivalent of fifteen dollars per hour, in this way everybody can afford our tax by the end of the year. Providers will be forced to adapt to this minimum wage because they will not be able to ship abroad, our society will ensure that a country like China which gets taken advantage of because of its population never surfaces again,. Another drastic way that the Martian government as well as economy would differ from ours is that they would have to provide a spreadsheet detailing how they spent the tax money provided by the people of Mars every month.

Society's Distinction
Conditioning & Conformity
If the inhabitants break the rules they are subjected to a punishment set for any rule that they break, whether it is a minor, major, or severe crime the punishments are of no laughing matter.
They would want to be part of a society that is thriving on a new planet, each person has come to Mars for a reason and for most of them, it is so that they can make life on another planet. Before the society has been fully built, citizens will want to make sure that there is a civilization for the future generations, and a civilization that earth can rely on coming to or thriving off of it. After the society has been fully built, the society will want to live in a more civilized way with each other and want to accomplish their jobs to further make the society thrive.
Unitam publicae paribus
(The United Republic Of Mars)
MARS
Since we are a centrally planned economy. We plan to make every body equal and have the same social safety net. But there is not going to be a dictatorship, we have a council that everything goes through, they are selected by going through a personality test so they may not be corrupt. The problem with our solution is that our citizens will not have much incentive to work because they will make the same amount of money. In theory, since we are only going to take 40% of their annual profits, the more they make, the more they will keep. To make sure that there is an incentive to work, we would offer a reward system. Its like an employee of the moth, and those who do the best get more money. Those who earn these rewards will be chosen at the government's discretion.
Save the Llama from the car! if you don't, he dies!
A thermal nuclear rocket engine uses a nuclear reactor (a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction) to heat hydrogen to very high temperatures, with the superheated hydrogen expanding and forced through a nozzle to generate thrust. As such, the performance of a thermal nuclear engine is limited by the high temperature strength of solid materials. Unlike solar or nuclear powered ion or plasma engines, thermal nuclear engines perform largely the same job as chemical rockets (produce multi-g acceleration), but do so with roughly half the fuel requirement.

NASA is now taking another look at nuclear engines, primarily for the upper stages of launch vehicles and as primary propulsion for deep space missions.

NASA has begun tests to see if the reactor core temperature can be increased and be able to be sustained in a new material. They have begun tests in a Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) It is a facility that can safely and thoroughly test a wide range of nuclear fuel elements without danger to the environment.

One of the proposed fuel assemblies is made of a cermet (a composite ceramic and metallic material) with a composition of sixty percent uranium dioxide (UO2) and forty percent tungsten metal. It is pierced with about one hundred holes that heat the hydrogen as it passes through the reactor. The holes are about two mm in diameter, and are clad with 90 micron thick tubes of tungsten-rhenium alloy. Each of the hexagonal fuel elements in the assembly is enclosed in a tungsten cladding sleeve 50 microns in thickness.

Due to the higher energy density of the nuclear fuel compared to chemical fuels, about 10^7 times, the resulting specific impulse of the engine is at least twice as good as chemical engines. The overall gross lift-off mass of a nuclear rocket is about half that of a chemical rocket, and hence when used as an upper stage it roughly doubles or triples the payload carried to orbit.
Nuclear Thermal Rockets
First, a small, fully contained nuclear fission chamber utilizes a tiny amount of fissile material to generate heat -- much in the way a nuclear power plant operates. In the second part of the process, a lightweight element -- usually liquid hydrogen -- is forced around the reactor core where it is instantly heated. The resulting superheated hydrogen is then expelled at great velocities through the engine nozzle, generating over twice as much specific impulse (force) as a traditional rocket engine, permitting a rocket to travel further and at higher velocities.

Alone we will fall, United we shall succeed
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