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ASTRONOMY

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Maria Alexis

on 15 April 2015

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Transcript of ASTRONOMY

ASTRONOMY
WHAT IS ASTRONOMY?
The study of planets, stars, galaxies, & intergalactic and interstellar space.
Who made the first star map?
When did people know that the Earth was round?
When were sunspots discovered?
Aristotle was a Greek philosopher who lived between 384-322 B.C. He mistakenly believed that the Earth was at the center of the universe and made up of only four elements:
1) earth
2) water
3) air
4) fire.
He also thought that celestial bodies such as the sun, moon, and stars, were perfect and divine, and made of a fifth element called ether.
Aristotle
was a Greek philosopher who lived between
384-322 B.C
. He
mistakenly believed
that the
Earth
was
at the center of the universe

and made
up
of
only
four elements.
What are they?
He also
thought
that celestial bodies such as the
sun, moon, and stars, were perfect and divine
, and were
made up of
a fifth element called
ether
.


Democritus
was a Greek philosopher who lived between
470-380 B.C
.




He
developed
the
concept
of
the 'atom'
, Greek for 'indivisible'. Democritus
believed
that
everything
in the universe was
made up of atoms
, which were microscopic and indestructible.
He understood that the
Milky Way was a large collection of stars
and also thought that
space was limitless
.
Hipparchus
was a Greek astronomer who lived between
190-120 B.C
. He created the
first accurate star map
and kept a
catalogue

of
over
850 stars
with their relative brightnesses. (He was also the first founder of trigonometry.)
• This is considered a major event in the history of science since it started the "Copernican Revolution"

Most of the people of that time believed that the earth was located in the center of the universe and that everything( including the sun) orbited the earth.
Nicolaus Copernicus-

1473-1543
, Polish mathematician and astronomer, formulated a
model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at its center
(a
heliocentric solar system
). He published this model in his book called
"On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres"
. He also
put the six known planets in proper order.

Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer and physicist who lived between 1564-1642. He challenged Aristotle's proposition that heavenly bodies were divine and therefore perfect and blemish-free.

Galileo was the first person to use a telescope to look at the heavens. He discovered sunspots, and craters and peaks in the moon. Galileo's work offended the Roman Catholic Church and he was sentenced to house arrest for the later years of his life. Today, he is remembered as a martyr for scientific truth.
Thousands of years ago, the earliest civilizations observed the skies. Stonehenge shows some alignments with the Sun and the Moon.

Astronomers of the past have built the foundation for today's astronomy.
Who are these scientists and mathematicians?
He was also the first to
calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis
(again with remarkable accuracy). It is thought , he may also have accurately calculated the distance from the Earth to the Sun and invented the leap day.
Galileo Galilei

1564-1642
Italian scientist whose greatest contributions were his
descriptions of moving objects

Laid groundwork for the study of gravity
by demonstrating that the
weight of an object does not affect its rate of fall
.
Discovered four moons of Jupiter
; observed and recorded the phases of Venus; studied the moon’s surface;
tracked sunspots
Galileo was
tried by The Inquisition
in the 1600's for teaching against the current belief of the Catholic Church (that the sun was center of the universe). He was later declared innocent by John Paul II in 1980's.
Johan Kepler
was a German astronomer who lived between
1571-1630
. He introduced three important
laws of planetary motion
and
helped the Copernican model
of the solar system
gain
general
acceptance.
During his life, Kepler also cast horoscopes and wrote science fiction novels.
Albert Einstein

1879-1955
-a German-born American physicist, developed the
Theory of Relativity
to explain motion of particles traveling at the speed of light
Edwin Hubble

1889-1953
American astronomer, who first
discovered light beyond our galaxy
Kepler also
incorporated religious arguments
and reasoning into his work. He believed that
God had created the world according to an intelligible plan
and he described his new astronomy as
"celestial physics"
He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and, being Jewish, did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences.
Einstein quotes:

"Imagination is more important than knowledge."

"The only reason for time is so that everything doesn't happen at once."

"Everything should be as simple as possible, but not simpler."
1.Einstein
believed the laws of physics are the same everywhere.
So on Earth, we have to deal with the same laws of light and gravity as other things that are way out there in the universe.

It’s all relative, you might say.

2.
The speed of light is a constant
.
Hubble also devised the most commonly used
system for classifying galaxies
, grouping them according to their appearance in photographic images. He arranged the different groups of galaxies in what became known as the
Hubble Sequence
that some say looks like a tuning fork.
Hubble changed the view of the scientific community with his
Expanding Universe Theory

Alan Guth
(
1940-
, American) developed a new theory called the
Inflationary Universe
as an addition to the Big Bang Model. Inflation theory
predicts that the universe is flat and infinite
.
Stephen Hawking
(
1942
-, British) is another astronomer with an amazing mind. He proved that
black holes emit radiation and eventually evaporate.
Despite being completely immobile as a result of Lou Gehrig's disease, he has written numerous books to bring astronomy, physics, math, and cosmology to the general public.
Carl Sagan

1934-1996
(American) could be called
'the astronomer of the people'.

He made the science of astronomy popular with the general public by recording documentaries and
producing the 'Cosmos' television show.

He is best known for his
contributions
to the scientific
search for extraterrestrial life
, which continues today- there have been a number of missions to Mars to search for signs of life.
Sagan with a model of the Viking lander that would land on Mars
"We are just a speck, on a speck, orbiting a speck, in the corner of a speck, in the middle of nowhere."
Earth
Water
Air
Fire
Eratosthenes
was a Greek scientist who lived from
276 to 194 B.C
. He studied astronomy, geography, and math. He is best known for being the
first person to calculate
the
circumference of the Earth
. His calculation was remarkably accurate.
Ptolemy
was a Greek astronomer who lived between
85-165 A.D
. He put together his own ideas with those of Aristotle and Hipparchus and
formed the geocentric theory
. This theory states that the
Earth was at the center of the universe
and all other heavenly bodies circled it, a model which held for 1400 years until the time of Copernicus.
Astronomy attempts to answer many questions.
Full transcript