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Electrolytes

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by

Greg Carter

on 3 February 2016

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Transcript of Electrolytes

Cations
ions with a positive charge...
Major cations in body fluid:
sodium
potassium
calcium
magnesium
Sodium (Na+) is the most abundant cation
Sodium ions are the major contributor to maintaining water balance
Potassium
major electrolyte
principle cation in intracellular compartment
The body does
not
do a good job of conserving K+
conditions that increase urine output DECREASE K+
what role do diuretics play?
Calcium
stored in bone, plasma, and body cells
Magnesium
essential for enzyme activity
neurochemical activity
cardiac and skeletal muscle function
Anion
are negatively charged
3 major anions of the body...
Chloride
bicarbonate
phosphate
Chloride
major anion in ECF
bicarb
primary chemical buffer in the body
essential to acid base balance
regulated by the kidneys
Phosphorus-phosphate
found primarily within ICF
is a buffer, as hydrogen increase in the blood, phosphate takes in hydrogen; if hydrogen decreased in the blood, phosphate releases hydrogen
phosphate and calcium help to develop and maintain bones & teeth
phosphate & calcium have an inverse relationship
Review tables
41-3
41-4
Hyponatrimia:
lower than normal sodium in the blood
can occur with net sodium loss or net water excess
GI: vomiting, diarrhea, NG suctioning
Renal: kidney disease, diuretics, adrenal insufficiency
Skin: burns, excessive sweating
Hypernatremia
excess water loss
increased Na intake
excess aldosterone secretion
diabetes
Hypernatremia secondary to diuretic therapy is common with increasing age (>65 years)
Up to one fifth of patients with congestive heart failure may develop hypernatremia owing to excess diuresis
How do you see lab values impacting your plan of care during clinical?
Electrolytes
B260

Hyperkalemia
greater than normal potassium
MARKED cardiac conduction issues
primary cause: renal failure
decreased renal function=decreased potassium clearance
in what patient population do you anticipate potassium issues. how are you going to manage this during your clinical?
Hypokalemia
one of the most common electrolyte imbalances
affects cardiac functioning
most common cause:
vomiting and potassium-wasting diuretics
Hypocalcemia
results from illness, thyroid/parathyroid surgery, rapid blood transfusion, alcoholism, renal failure.
If phosphorus rises, calcium declines.... inverse relationship...
Hypercalcemia
frequently a SYMPTOM of underlying disease such as hyperparathyroidism or neoplasm (tumor), resulting in excess release of calcium...
how is this related to immobility, remember first lecture?
Full transcript