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Transcript of Electrolytes
ions with a positive charge...
Major cations in body fluid:
Sodium (Na+) is the most abundant cation
Sodium ions are the major contributor to maintaining water balance
principle cation in intracellular compartment
The body does
do a good job of conserving K+
conditions that increase urine output DECREASE K+
what role do diuretics play?
stored in bone, plasma, and body cells
essential for enzyme activity
cardiac and skeletal muscle function
are negatively charged
3 major anions of the body...
major anion in ECF
primary chemical buffer in the body
essential to acid base balance
regulated by the kidneys
found primarily within ICF
is a buffer, as hydrogen increase in the blood, phosphate takes in hydrogen; if hydrogen decreased in the blood, phosphate releases hydrogen
phosphate and calcium help to develop and maintain bones & teeth
phosphate & calcium have an inverse relationship
lower than normal sodium in the blood
can occur with net sodium loss or net water excess
GI: vomiting, diarrhea, NG suctioning
Renal: kidney disease, diuretics, adrenal insufficiency
Skin: burns, excessive sweating
excess water loss
increased Na intake
excess aldosterone secretion
Hypernatremia secondary to diuretic therapy is common with increasing age (>65 years)
Up to one fifth of patients with congestive heart failure may develop hypernatremia owing to excess diuresis
How do you see lab values impacting your plan of care during clinical?
greater than normal potassium
MARKED cardiac conduction issues
primary cause: renal failure
decreased renal function=decreased potassium clearance
in what patient population do you anticipate potassium issues. how are you going to manage this during your clinical?
one of the most common electrolyte imbalances
affects cardiac functioning
most common cause:
vomiting and potassium-wasting diuretics
results from illness, thyroid/parathyroid surgery, rapid blood transfusion, alcoholism, renal failure.
If phosphorus rises, calcium declines.... inverse relationship...
frequently a SYMPTOM of underlying disease such as hyperparathyroidism or neoplasm (tumor), resulting in excess release of calcium...
how is this related to immobility, remember first lecture?