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Transcript of Progressivism
Health and Drug Reforms
Taft, Election of 1912, Wilson
Definition: Return control of the government to the people, restore economic opportunities, and correct injustices in life
"...belief that individuals are not autonomous but part of a great web of social relationships, that the welfare of any single person is dependent on the welfare of society as a whole."
Goals of Progressivism
1. Protect social welfare
2. Promote moral improvement
3. Create economic reform
4. Foster efficiency
The need for reform arose when immigration levels rose and created crowded cities with a high demand for jobs and a limited number available.
1906 - Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle, an expose about the corrupt meat packing industry in Chicago.
President Roosevelt read The Jungle and appointed experts to investigate factories.
1. Relieve Urban Problems
Protecting Social Welfare
Social Gospel, settlement houses inspire other groups
Florence Kelly, political activist, advocate for women, children
Help pass law prohibiting child labor, limiting women’s hours
Settlement houses, YMCA, Salvation Army
2. Improve personal behavior
Women's Christian Temperance Union
- Founded in 1873. By 1911, 245,000 members; led by Frances Willard
- Advocated right to vote
- Est. kindergarten for immigrants
- visited prisons and asylums
*** Prohibition groups feared alcohol as the cause of decline of American culture and democracy.
- Founded 1895
- Angered immigrants
- Saloon part of life = meals, cash checks, banquets
3. Creating Economic Reform
- Idea of government centered economy
1893 panic prompts doubts about capitalism; many become socialists
1900 - American Socialist Party: Eugene Debs
- Saw truth in Deb; most people steered clear
* Journalism uncovered corruption in
Muckrakers: Ida Tarbell - Standard Oil
4. Scientific Management
- Improve efficiency
Many use experts, science to make society, workplace more efficient
Louis D. Brandeis uses social scientists’ data in trail
Scientific management—time and motion studies applied to workplace--Assembly lines speed up production, make people work like machines--Causes high worker turnover
- Frederick Taylor
- Father of scientific management
1906 Meat Inspection Act
- Cleanliness requirements = government regulation
- Compromise w/ factory owners
Government paid for inspection
Date of processing info NOT required on canned food
1906 Pure Food and Drug Act
- ended sale of contaminated stuff
- TRUTH required on labels
* Dr. Harvey Wiley criticized manufacturers for adding harmful preservatives to food
- coal-tar dye; formaldehyde
* Medicine contained: opium; cocaine; alcohol
*** Act DID NOT ban harmful products
Political bosses & corrupt city officials
1. Reform city council with commissions
a. Appoint experts to help specific city departments.
(Began in Galveston, Texas after hurricane & tidal wave destroyed most of the city; local officials couldn't fix it.
b. Council-manager government = people elect city council, council then appoints city department managers.
2. Reform mayors
a. Elect mayors who will actually help the city.
* Hazen Pingree (Detroit, Michigan 1890-1897)
- Fair tax structure
- Decreased transportation fee
- Rooted out corruption
- Built schools and parks
- Work relief for unemployed
- Appointed competent, honest people to city jobs
New senators chosen by House of Representatives and current Senators
1. People elect Senators
** 17th Amendment
Other Oregon firsts:
1. 1908 Muller v. Oregon: legally limited working hours of women = 10 hrs/day
2. Bunting v. Oregon: legally limited working hours of men = 10 hours/day
Open elections (people afraid to vote for who they want
1. Change election process
Robert M La Follette is 3-term governor, then senator of Wisconsin-the direct primary
--secret ballot, the initiative, the referendum, and the recall.
*Initiative & referendum give citizens the power to create laws.
* People could petition to place an initiative (bill originated by the people) on the voters ballot.
*Referendum is the vote citizens can perform to accept or reject the bill.
*Recall allows voters to REMOVE a public official from office.
State governors not helping states reform
* Health problems for working children included:
- Underweight, stunted growth, spinal curving, respiratory disease, exaustion = accidents, development of bad habits = smoking, drinking, cussing
1. Competent, honest governors were elected; such as Hazen Pingree after he was mayor of Detroit.
2. Laws passed to regulate RR, mines, mills, and telepraph/phone companies, and large businesses.
3. Regulation passed to protect workers and end child labor (from 1890-1910 child labor under the age of 15 had grown to 1/2 million kids. Many were immigrant children who helped support the family.)
*1904 National Child Labor Committee
- Gathered evidence of working conditions
- Helped pass the Keating - Owen Act of 1916, which prohibited the transportation of goods produced by kids across state lines. (Act declared unconstitutional in 1919 b/c it interfered with interstate commerce.
- 1920 Child labor cut in 1/2 due to the work of the committee
- 1902 Workers compensation due to injury or death on the job
"You have the Liberty of Voting for any one you please; but we have the Liberty of Counting in any one we please."
Care for home and family = middle and upper class
WORK and care for home and family = lower class
Women on Farm:
Care for home and family AND sew all clothes, help plant crops, help plow and harvest fields. and take care of animals
Women in the Industry
In 1900: 1 of 5 women worked; 25% = factory jobs (textiles, tobacco, canneries, bookbinders, packing plants, commercial laundries)
Held the least skilled positions
Received lowest pay (aside from kids)
Education = expanded opportunities
Office work, store clerk, school teacher, stenographer, typist, bookkeeper (In 1890, more women than men had high school education)
Women's colleges - Vassar 1865; Smith and Wellesley 1875; Barnard; Pembroke; Radcliffe
*Even if educated, still expected to fufill women's role as caretaker
* Social Housekeeping: improving work and home conditions (unsafe factories, labor abuse, better housing, more education, food and drug laws)
*1896 National Association of Colored Women (NACW)
- Managed nurseries, reading rooms, kindergartens
*Women's Suffrage, the right to vote, began @ Seneca Falls in 1848
- Susan B. Anthony was leader (DID NOT support 14 and 15th amendments which granted African American men the right to vote)
- National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA) started by Susan B. Anthony, had 3 goals:
Convince STATE legislatures to grant the right to vote first. (Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, and Idaho victories)
Go to court with the 14th and , amendments as base for fight (women were citizens too, therefore had the right to vote)
Push for consitutional amendment
Carrie Chapman Catt in 1915 with the NAWSA pushes the House of Reps for an Amendment for women's suffrage
By 1920--3/4 of the states ratified the 19th Amendment.
**In 1872 Susan voted illegally in the presidential election fined $100
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
- Spanish American War
- Rough Riders had the reputation of being young, headstrong, .....
- Bosses and businessmen wanted him out of the way.
Make him Vice President w/ McKinley as Pres.
1 year later, Teddy becomes President when McKinley is assasinated.
- Boxed w/ professionals
- Rode hundreds of miles a day just to say he did
- Aquired the name "Teddy" when he spared a bear cub while hunting
* The Teddy Bear was named after him for this reason
- Married Alice Hathaway Lee, who diedin childbirth with their daughter Alice. His mother died the same day from typhoid fever.
-1886 married childhood sweetheart Edith Kermit Carow and eventually had 5 children, 6 with Alice.
- He was an avid reader, completing several a day in different languages.
- One of the four faces of Mt. Rushmore
- 26th President
- Acted boldly: became a Presidential role model, used popularity and personality to advance programs
Control corporations (trustbusting)
Consumer protection (Food and Drug Act)
Conservation of natural resources (earth conservation)
Pennsylvania Coal Strike
1st challenge as Pres.
Miners - 20% pay increase, 9 hour day, right to organize
5 month strike, settled in the White House
10% pay increase, 9 hour day, no union
Elkins Act 1903 - notification of rate changes
Hepburn Act 1906 - Gave ICC power to set max rate
Northern Securities Co. - RR co./ 2st busted
Goal: Prove Gov't, not businesses, controlled the country
1891 - Forest Conservation Act - 46M acres of national parks
1894 - Carey Act - land to states for irrigation
1902 - Newlands Act - land sales in West = irrigation $
1902 - Banned Christmas trees in White House
1903 - TR set aside 148M acres of forest
1905 - Gifford Pinchot = head of U.S. Forest Service
1904 - TR wins Presidential election
1908 - TR chose successor (chose not to run again)
- William Howard Taft
Busted 90 trusts in 4 years
Removed 1 million acres of farming and mining land from reserve
Initiated throwing out of 1st ball of baseball season
Didn't want to be President
Election of 1912
1912 Roosevelt runs for President AGAIN
- Taft supportors wouldn't seat Roosevelt supporters at the convention
- TR began the Progressive Party, also known as the Bull Moose Party
- Woodrow Wilson = Democratic candidate
- "New Freedom" platform
Stronger anti trust laws
- Break up , NOT regulate, trusts
Clayton Act 1914
- No longer buy stock if = monopoly
- labor & farm unions NOT a trust
Federal Trade Act 1914
- est Federal Trade Commission
- investigate violations & unfair business practices, including inaccurate labeling
- decrease tariff rates
16th Amendment - 1913
- Graduated federal income tax (more you make, more you pay)
Federal Reserve Act 1913
- divide US into 12 districts
- Fed. Res. Banks = issue paper currency in emergency
- banks coul transfer $ to member banks
- opposed FEDERAL anti-lynching laws (state right)
- segregation in federal offices resumed
- NAACP felt betrayed
- Democratic, NYC
-Existed since 1789, Peak of power 1850's to 1930's
- Gained a lot of power from immigration surge
- In exchange for votes, set up rudimentary public welfare
- "BOSS" WILLIAM TWEED
- Did good (Brooklyn Bridge, The MET), also made a large profit from this
- Julius Chambers, New York Tribune, 1871, committed himself to Bloomingdale Asylum to investigate mistreatment of the mentally ill.
- Muckrakers wrote about many different trusts; oil, coal mines, crime, fraud, waste, public health and safety, and illegal financial practices
Protecting Working Children
Child workers get lower wages, small hands handle small parts better
Families need children’s wages
National Child Labor Committee gathers evidence of harsh conditions
Labor unions argue children’s wages lower all wages
Groups press government to ban child labor, cut hours
By 1912 President Taft organizing the Children's Bureau to investigate
Louis Hines PPT