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Transcript of Learning theory
Humanistic Theory of Learning
Abraham Maslow has been considered the Father of Humanistic Psychology. Maslow's theory is based on the notion that experience is the primary phenomenon in the study of human learning and behavior. He placed emphasis on choice, creativity, values, self-realization, all distinctively human qualities, and believed that meaningfulness and subjectivity were more important than objectivity. For Maslow, development of human potential, dignity and worth are ultimate concerns.
Gagné's hierarchy of learning
In 1956, the American educational psychologist Robert M. Gagné proposed a system of classifying different types of learning in terms of the degree of complexity of the mental processes involved. He identified eight basic types, and arranged these in the hierarchy shown in Figure 1. According to Gagné, the higher orders of learning in this hierarchy build upon the lower levels, requiring progressively greater amounts of previous learning for their success. The lowest four orders tend to focus on the more behavioural aspects of learning, while the highest four focus on the more cognitive aspects.
Edward Thorndike (1874 - 1949)
Whereas classical conditioning depends on developing associations between events, operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of our behavior. Skinner wasn’t the first psychologist to study learning by consequences. Indeed, Skinner's theory of operant conditioning is built on the ideas of Edward Thorndike.
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Carl Rogers (1902 - 1987)
Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. He learned to read before age 5. His upbringing was strict and he and his five siblings had many chores. He entered the University of Wisconsin, and as a student of Christian ministry, he was selected to go to Beijing for the “World Student Christian Federation Conference” for six months. This experience changed his thinking such that he began to doubt some of his religious beliefs. He instead entered the clinical psychology program of Columbia University, and received his Ph.D. in 1931.