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Copy of The Industrial Revolution: Mind Map

For Socials 9

Little George J-s

on 21 May 2013

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Transcript of Copy of The Industrial Revolution: Mind Map

A Mind Map The Industrial Revolution The Agricultural Revolution The Agricultural Revolution was a very important of the Industrial Revolution. Without the agricultural revolution it would’ve been very hard to accomplish everything the industrial revolution did. The agricultural revolution made a huge leap away from the Feudal system by bringing to inventions and ideas. Farming was completely modernized which effected many people of the era, turning many of their lives upside down. Some people didn’t have enough money to purchase and support the new inventions which made their wealth go down even more. For other people, as well as the British economy, their lives became even better than before and the quality of life sky rocketed. Without the Agricultural Revolution, farming would not be changed and like it is today. The Economic Revolution The economic revolution was the heart of the industrial revolution. The drive that kept the inventions coming. With the government going 'hands off' on the industry, the economy boomed for England and they were wealthier, and more well off then ever before. The economic revolution was very helpful for the rich business people, or the nobles, but made the poor, working class pay high tolls. Textile Industry The textile industry was arguably the industry with the most new innovations. There were countless innovations in this industry and all of them played a huge role in the development of textiles. The textile industry was one of the most rich and wealthy industries of the time. Before the industrial revolution the production of wool was a long and hard task. The wool had to be removed from the sheep, than spun, woven and finally sold and it took a lot of effort to just get one spool of thread out. The textile industry soon moved from small cottage industries, to large factories and put many old textile workers out of skilled labor. The Seed Drill The seed drill was an extremely important invention during the time of the industrial revolution. Jethro Tull’s extraordinary invention saved time, effort, and seeds. By creating the holes and dropping the seeds, all the farmer had to do was push dirt over the holes which would save seeds from predators such as birds therefore being extremely profitable to both the farmer, and the industry. Overall, this was a very important innovation. The Enclosure Movement The enclosure movement was a very clever idea that became enforced around 1700. The premise was that the strips of land each farmer owned would be moved into one larger field which was the same size of all the previous strips of land added up. This was extremely helpful for efficiency as one farmer wouldn’t have to walk for extremely long ways to get to their other strip of land. Crop Rotation Townshend's Crop Rotation idea was very important in the industrial revolution. The idea behind it was each season, the crops in each field would be rotated so that the nutrients in the soil were sustained. It was very efficient and profitable for the farmer, as they would never have to leave their fields fallow for a year. New Breeds New Breeds helped farmers extremely. As they realized that they could breed their best animals to create the best possible animal in their reach, the meat and wool industries became much better, and more efficient. These animals were bred for the sole purpose of being profitable. New Breeds didn't catch as many diseases or illnesses as the former breeds. Cows were bred to produce more milk or better meat and sheep for thicker wool. The only downside was that these breeds were extremely expensive and most farmers couldn't afford them setting them far behind the more wealthy ones who could afford the luxury of buying these animals. Laissez-Faire Policy "To Leave Alone" Parliament In the parliament during the industrial revolution it was composed of the Tories, and the Whigs. The Tories represented the rich landowners and the Whigs represented the Middle class. It was the Tories idea to begin the Laissez-Faire policy which you read about in the last section. Ordinary working class people still not have a franchise, or in other words, the right to vote. The same could be said for women. Even the suggestion that this policy should be considered was out of the question. Still, some people, like Mary Wollstonecraft did try, and sadly did not have a very good result. Entrepreneurs New Technologies The New technologies were possibly the most apparent reason that the economy grew as it did. With the government giving grants to people who could invent things, new ways of being more efficient and economic were popping up all the time. Inventions in all industries helped boost the economy. The productivity improved due to new inventions in the textile, coal and iron industries as well as many others. Without these inventions the economy never would have thrived like it has The Laissez-Faire Policy was basically the government saying they didn't want anything to do with the way business's worked; as long as the money kept flowing in. The way the theory was shows was that if the government stayed out of it, then the motivation for wealth would drive people using self interest. Though it ultimately did create a wealthy and productive economy, it wasn't helpful for everyone. Working conditions weren't regulated, nor were salaries or human rights. It ended up being the rich factory owners paying low wages to the workers because there was no minimum wage. This policy ended up helping the countries wealth, but put the workers in a very bad spot. Entrepreneurs are still apparent in society today. An Entrepreneur is a person who runs a business but in doing so is risking either making, or not making a profit. These business owners were the core of the economy during the industrial revolution, as they were the ones who brought the money in to the country using their business to create a profit. The Entrepreneurs benefited the Laissez-Faire policy greatly and it helped them manage their business and create the largest profit possible. Though some of their techniques could be called ruthless, they did manage to increase England's Economy greatly. The Spinning Jenny The spinning Jenny was a device invented by James Hargreaves in 1764. He named it after his wife. It was driven by a hand-cranked wheel which spun several threads at once. This meant that one spinner could do the work of multiple spinners which was extremely efficient. Hargreaves tried to keep his machine a secret, but it ended up being found out. Soon enough, Hargreaves found partners and they opened up a successful factory. The Water Frame The water frame was invented by Richard Arkwright, and, like the spinning Jenny, was used for spinning. It spun the yarn using water rollers. It improved the strength of the yarn and also was quite a bit faster than the Jenny. Like Hargreaves, he also became very wealthy because of his invention. Later, the best features of the water frame and the spinning Jenny were put together into Samuel Compton's Spinning Mule. The Flying Shuttle In 1733 John Kay invented one of the first important textile inventions. His was a device made for weaving called the Flying Shuttle. With the Flying Shuttle, weaving was made much faster. On a small loom, one person would send the shuttle with one hand, and send it again with the other. To use a big loom, two people were needed. With the flying shuttle, a fascinating mechanism using springs and levers allowed the shuttle to fly back to the weaver. This let one weaver do the work of what 2 weavers would have done before which was very profitable at the time. The Jacquard Loom In 1801, Joseph Jacquard invented the Jacquard Loom which would soon revolutionize the weaving industry. This loom, could weave patterns into the cloth making it more beautiful and intricate. This was done in a ancient form of binary code, where they punched holes in different cards which read for a different pattern in the fabric. Each card, with a different pattern of dots, would show a completely different woven item. This was a very important invention, because it wasn't completely for productivity as inventions usually were for, but it was for the luxury of having a lovely carpet which is more similar to modern day inventions Coal and Iron Industries The growth of these vital industries didn't really start improving until the mid 1700's. Coal became a significant source of power during this time, as it remains today. These industries had a huge impact on the economy as well as the environment. The burning of coal was the beginning of the emission of green house gases which is a problem that the generation of today has to be careful for. But without coal, we wouldn't be nearly as developed as a society as we happen to be. Cast Iron In 1750, Abraham Darby invented a new process for making Cast Iron. This was the beginning of a series of other inventions that ended up becoming a huge Cast Iron industry. Soon, everywhere you went, you would be able to find Cast Iron products, including pots, pans, even supports for bridges. They were much cheaper than products of other metals. Eventually England became the world's leading cast iron producer Coal Mines Coke instead of Coal Coke instead of Coal became a new type of coal that could be used as a replacement. It burns off sulphur when heated which is extremely helpful when making Cast Iron. Abraham Darby (mentioned in the Cast Iron Section) used Coke as a replacement for the standard Coal. This invention was very helpful and the Cast Iron industry somewhat depended on it. Health Problems Working in the coal mines had many, many health problems for the workers. If the minors managed to get through without any mining accidents, they were almost positively still sure to suffer. Coal dust is highly toxic and since the miners worked from early morning to late night, they were constantly breathing it in. In the long term, this caused 'Black Lung' which very often lead to an early death. And since wages were as low as possible they barely had enough money to support for their families which often lead to children working in the mines or malnourishment. Neither which are at all humane. As the Iron Industry grew, the Coal industry was forced to grow with it. Everyone was using coal. To keep warm in the winter, to power locomotives, to run steam engines. Since coal deposits were large and there were tons around England, it was a very cheap resource and therefore ended up being used a lot. Coal was a necessity. Though coal helped the economy and all the industries in England, it was not a good environment to work in. The wages were extremely low and the Coal Deposits were highly dangerous. When Coal burns it produces methane gas which is very, very explosive. Coal mines were toxic places, which will be covered later in this Presentation. Transportation To fully use the factory system, the means of getting goods from one place to another were in dire need of fixing. And the industrial revolution managed to do this as well by creating many different inventions. Before these changes were made the roads were so terrible that wagons would not work on them, so pack horses had to bare the brunt of the problem. And even so, they were often so slippery that the horses would slip and the goods would be ruined. But, with the changes they made during the industrial revolution, everything would change. The Turnpike System Steam Boats & Canals Locomotives Possibly the most important innovation in the Transportation industry, would be the locomotive. To make the locomotive the manufacturers would use the steam engine and use it to power the vehicle. This was extremely important because, with the use of railways, these locomotives could travel on land, which was usually more efficient than using the steamboats for national deliveries inside of England. The Rocket The Rocket was the fastest vehicle to ever be built by human's. George and Robert Stephenson's 1829 machine could travel at unheard speeds of 39 kilometres per hour. This locomotive was extremely efficient as it was positively the fastest way to transport anything to anywhere. Soon enough, railroads were all around the country and were the main way to get around. The Turnpike System was a very clever plan put into place by the government. So that the government wouldn't have to pay for the construction of roads, they once again relied on individual craving for wealth and self interest. The idea was that a company could build a section of road and than charge people for using it at tolls. James Macadam used the Turnpike system and created Macadam Roads, which are still used in gravel roads in Canada. They don't allow the road to get muddy by having 3 layers of granite. There are large stones at the bottom, and fine granite gravel at the surface. The road was also able to 'shed' water so mud was unable to stay. Tolls are still used in many places today. Canals were very important to the industrial revolution as they helped with shipping incredibly. By making man made water ways to get resources to places the cost of shipping reduced by three quarters. Steam Boats were invented and sailed the network of canals to bring goods efficiently from one place to the next. by Lynaea KF Cottage Industries To Factories The Medieval Cottage Industry was completely overrun by the new concept of factories. Everything about production was changed from the method, to the skill requirements, to the location. It was a huge change for so many people around England and the world never went back to the full cottage industry once it had been revolutionized. Method Location Scale of Production The Scale or Production changed entirely. In cottage industries ONE worker would produce ONE item at a time. It took a long time and they did it slowly and by hand. In factories, on the other hand, it was very large scale. The buildings were huge, and many people worked in one factory. Everything was mechanized and each stage was done in seconds. The Workers Things changed extremely drastically for the workers. It jumped from small, in house conditions, to large noisy and dangerous factories. In cottage industries it was very safe for workers and everything was up to the worker and they could use their own discretion. Workers also needed very high skill and the ability to create the entire product. In factories the conditions were not safe at all. The machines were loud and dangerous and there were no regulations or workers rights. There was also no skill required as the worker was part of a production line and did one simple job all day. In the Cottage Industry the method was very simple. People ran their own business and everything was made by them. The owner would usually make one thing at a time and then self it at a local market. The source of power that these skilled laborers used was all man powered. All of this was flipped when the factory system came along though. Everything was made by machines and was in production lines. Rather than finishing a product, each person worked on one small part of the item before passing it on to the next person. The power source changed from man power to steam power (coal), or water power. In Cottage industries the producers usually worked at home and sold products at their local market. They worked at home and women would manage their family at the same time. Factories were located in large, dirty, smoky, industrial cities and all work took place at a factory. Life In Factories Child Labour was a huge issue in the industrial revolution. Education wasn't mandatory and parents didn't have enough money to support the family alone so children had to work at extremely young ages. Children were also quite useful to the employers because they got low wages and could perform tasks that adults struggled with. Useful Working Conditions Illness & Physical Deformities Children were exposed to awful conditions all of their working day which caused many awful things to happen to their growing bodies. They were constantly exposed to noise and pollution which caused physical deformities. They were also almost always malnourished or starving, and adding the stress of working more than full time was making everything worse. Their lungs were also being damaged because of the smoke inhaled either in mine shafts or chimney's. Job Options Some jobs, were only fit to be done by children. And usually these were the most dangerous ones that adults weren't small enough to do. For instance, children were often stuck in very tight mine shafts so small that no adult could fit. Children were also useful in the textile industry when it came to untangling the threads when they got caught. The children would climb into them, and hope they didn't lose a limb, as there wasn't an off button. Children were also in high demand as chimney sweeps. Since the burning of coal was becoming more and more frequent all the time, the chimney's needed to be cleaned. Sometimes, the message that the chimney was getting swept wouldn't be conveyed correctly and the child would be stuck inside a burning chimney with no way of getting out. Children were extremely useful in the Industrial Revolution. They could do things that adults couldn't. They could untangle strings, or squeeze through mine shafts or down chimneys. Also, they were extremely economical for factory owners, as they were just as capable as many adults, and didn't get paid nearly as much. Since the Laissez-faire policy was going strong, there was nothing against putting these children to use, no matter how cruel it seemed. The working conditions for children were awful. They worked overtime hours all the while being exposed to pollution, noise, and other deadly toxins. And thats without the mention that the work was often dangerous. They could be blown up in mine shafts, or have limbs caught in machinery as well as getting stuck in a (lit) chimney. These conditions were not only awful for children but easily harmed adults as well. Child Labour Society & Culture During the time of the industrial revolution, the structure of society hadn't changed much. There was still the rich upper class, the middle class, and the working class. The class system was still running strong, but did begin to trickle off eventually. The British people could tell who was part of what class because of the accent they possessed. Unlike the medieval ways, this class system was quite a bit more complicated than it used to be. The Upper Class Middle Class The Working Class The working class bared the brunt of the Industrial Revolution. They were exposed to the harsh working conditions and lived in the slums of England. This was composed of the skilled (and unskilled) labourers as well as anyone who was taking part in casual labour. The lowest class was people who could only find a job for a short time and had to get a new one very soon. They Usualy worked in factories or mines. These people lived in the slums, which were tiny, cramped apartments. Often, an entire family would live in one room. Crime and disease were very common due to the improper sewer system. Diseases like scarlet fever, tetanus, tuberculosis and cholera were all infecting the inhabitants of the slums. Workhouses Many poor people couldn't manage to support their families and had to move to workhouses because of the desperation. These were places that provided the workers with shelter and a little bit of food. But the jobs were usually the worst ones available, the ones that no one else would ever want to take and they were almost always harmful. Often, the board members made the profits that the workhouse inmates owned. It was almost impossible to earn any money in these Workhouses. The Upper Class referred to themselves as Society, and they had a very specific way of living. They went to the 'right' schools, and churches. The Upper Class put themselves ahead of everyone else, and even had to read the 'right' newspapers. People who were born into the Upper Class lived easy and luxurious life and everyone new each other based on reputation, accent, or by person. The Middle class people had their own culture and way of spending time. And this class grew enormously during the industrial revolution. The middle class consisted of doctors, engineers, lawyers, business men (with property and money), or military officers. Having a university degree greatly helped life in the middle class. Along with the middle class, there was also the low middle class which included teachers below the university level and shop owners. "Society"
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