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MICROPROCESSORS: 4th Generation of Computer
Transcript of MICROPROCESSORS: 4th Generation of Computer
4th Generation of Computer
Through 1970s, computers gained dramatically in
and storage capacity
but entry into the fourth generation was evolutionary rather than revolutionary.
So, the fourth generation computers were built. The fourth generation computers emerged with development of the VLSI
Very Large Scale Integration
With the help of VLSI technology microprocessor came into existence.The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand.
FIRST MICROPROCESSOR CHIP
The Intel Corporation introduced the first microprocessor chip, called the “4004”,which,
when combined with the 4001 ROM chip and the 4002 RAM chip, made up a microcomputing system.
The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit microprocessor. Microprocessors are integrated circuits that contain thousands and millions of transistors.
The microprocessor was able to group all the components of a computer, including the CPU, or central processing unit,
the memory, and the input and output controls on a single chip.
The Intel 4004 was first used on March 2, 1972 in the Pioneer 10 space probe.
FIRST PROGRAM TO UNDERSTAND NATURAL LANGUAGE
Terry Winograd included a program called SHRDLU. It was the first to combine parsing (analyzing) English Statements, putting events into context, problem solving, and natural language response. It could analyze a conversation about a toy world containing blocks of various sizes, shapes and colors.
FIRST PERSONAL COMPUTER
The first personal computer revolution began when Scientific American ran an ad for the Kenbak-the 1st personal computer-in its Sept. 1971. John Blankenbaker, the designer and builder of the Kenbak, intended to sell his computer to educators. Instead of using a keyboard, the computer was programmed by setting switches on the computer’s front panel. Blinking lights represented output in lieu of a display screen.
In November of 1972, Intel came out with a new 8-bit processor, known as the Intel 8008.
Xerox develops Smalltalk, the first “user-friendly” software. It was the first computer to use the desktop metaphor and mouse-driven graphical user interface (GUI).
The Intel 8080 is a re-engineered version of the Intel 8008. It had a larger and more versatile instruction set
It was developed by Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems (MITS), a small company centered in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The Altair computers were of blue box-shaped machines with dimensions of 17 inches by 18 inches by 7 inches. They were very simple, and so in complex that they did not even have a keyboard or display. These computers did not even have enough memory to perform any useful tasks. The Altair 8800 used an Intel 8080 microprocessor and had switches on the front panel for input and rows of neon lightbulbs for the output. These lights were known as light-emitting diodes, or LEDs. It is hard to believe, but it is the in-complexity of the Altair 8800 that helped to establish the personal computer industry. Because of its limitations, the Altair allowed for other companies to refine the computer and do develop more software.
● Apple II
Apple Computer was started by Stephen G. Wozniak and Steven P. Jobs. In 1976, the company introduced the Apple II to the personal computer market. The Apple II was appealing to consumers, because of its abundance of appealing software and with its well-written manuals. The computer also was able to be plugged into a standard household outlet.
Developed in 1976 by Gary Kildall of the company Digital Research, CP/M was a popular operating system that made it possible for one version of a program to run on a variety of computers. It is also the first commercially successful microcomputer system.
● Wang introduces a multi user word processing computer system
● Michael Schrayer develops Electric Pencil, the first microcomputer word processing software.
● FIRST COMMERCIAL LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)
The Datapoint Corporation announced ARCnet, the first commercially available LAN. ARCnet transmits data at a rate of 3 million bits per second over a coaxial cable.
● FIRST COMPLETELY ASSEMBLED PERSONAL COMPUTERS
Apple computer, Radio Shack and Commodore announced or made available completely assembled personal computers.
On May 11, 1979, at the West Coast Computer Faire, the first commercial program designed for an inexperienced user on a personal computer was introduced. VisiCalc, standing for Visible Calculator, is the first personal computer financial analysis tool.
● Seymour Rubenstein of Micropro develops WordStar, the first commercially successful microcomputer word processing software.
● Tandy Corporation introduces the TRS-80 Model II, the first commercially succesful business microcomputer.
● Osborne I
Invented by Adam Osborne, the Osborne I was the world's first portable computer. By today's standards, it wouldn't exactly be portable because of the fact that it weighed a whopping 24 pounds. The computer had a 5-inch display, 64 kilobytes of memory, a modem, and two 5-¼ floppy disk drives. It sold for $1,795.
The DN100 was the first workstation. It was developed by Apollo Computers, and it had much more power than some of the minicomputers around at the time. It was also available for a comparatively low price.
● IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER INTRODUCED
IBM introduced its first personal computer, an event that legitimized the use of the personal computer in the business world.
The U.S. Department of Justice drops its antitrust suit against IBM
● FIRST EXPERIMENTAL VERSION OF AN OPTICAL TRANSISTOR
The optically based “transphaser” is capable of switching 1000 times faster than is an electronic switch. By using the properties of certain crystals and laser technology, an optical computer could be built to process information in much the same way as an electronic computer but much faster.
● Apple introduces the Lisa microcomputer.This was the first PC to use graphical user interface. It had one MB of RAM and had a 12 inch black and white monitor. Unfortunately, Lisa was never successful because of its high price and slowness.
The Apple Macintosh was designed by Apple Computer and had many of the same features as the Lisa computer, also designed by Apple. The main goal of the Macintosh was to create a computer that would accommodate as many as Lisa's features as possible at a much lower price.
● Microsoft Windows Operating System
Microsoft makes its debut with its first windows operating system. The new Apple Macintosh had shadowed the personal computers, and now the Microsoft Windows Operating System gives PC compatibles the same capacities as the Macintosh.
● Programming Language
C++ is a general-purpose programming language that was derived from the C programming language. It had many of the C's capabilities, such as the ability to efficiently deal with objects such as bits, bytes, and words and the ability to efficiently implement user-defined type.
● IBM introduces its “laptop” computer, the PC convertible.
● Intel introduces the 80386 chip, the 32-bit microprocessor for MS-DOS microcomputers.
● Apple introduces the Macintosh II and Macintosh SE
IBM introduces the PS/2 family of computers.The PS/2 line was created by IBM in an attempt to recapture control of the PC market by introducing an advanced yet proprietary architecture.
“INTRODUCING COMPUTERS” (1989-1991 Edition), Robert H. Blissmer
“COMPUTERS:TOOLS FOR AN INFORMATION AGE”(5th Edition), H.L. Capron
“Introduction to Computers and Information Systems with Basic” (Second Edition), Thomas H. Athey & Robert W. Zmud