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Transcript of Negotiation
resolve point of difference,
gain advantage in outcome of dialogue,
produce an agreement upon courses of action,
bargain for individual or collective advantage,
craft outcomes to satisfy various interests of parties involved A conflict is an opposition of people, forces, or other entities.
Conflic Handling Modes "a process of combining conflicting positions into a common position under a decision rule of unanimity, a phenomenon in which the outcome is determined by the process."
Conflict Resolution Sources of conflict: Benefits of Conflict Realistic vs. Unrealistic Conflicts Negotiation Different Views over Conflicts Traditional view Human-relations view Interactionst view "Conflicts indicate a malfunction"
"Conflicts must be avoided" "Conflicts are absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively" "It is very natural, thus inevitable" Differences in
Values and Opinions
Desires and Needs
Unrealistic Conflicts are caused by:
historical tradition and prejudice
disfunctional organizational structure
need for tension release
Results in unwarranted tension and unnecessary destruction. Robert Bolton, PEOPLE SKILLS Conflict Prevention Fewer roadblocks (ordering, threatening, judging,...)
Reflective listening and assertion skills
Draining off tensions (without stressing others)
Increased emotional support (more love less fight)
Heightend tolerance and acceptance of others
Careful appraisal of the full costs of a conflict if handled skillfully it can
encourage personal and intellectual growths
spur technological developments
help renew social, religious, political and business organizations ! Just face it Handling Emotions 1) Treat the other person with respect
2) Listen until you "experience the other side"
3) Briefly state your own views, needs, and feelings Collaborative Problem Solving 1) Define the problem in terms of needs (not solutions)
2) Brainstorm for solutions
3) Select the solution(s) that best meet both parties neeeds
5) Implement the plan
6) Evaluate Social psychology of influence Robert B. Cialdini Why do people say ‘yes’?
Commitment and Consistency Social proof
win-win Emotions &
Values Be careful Sometimes you need to ... But not always conflict prevention is possible or desirable Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Handling Modes zero-sum orientation
win/lose power struggle Expand range of possible options
Achieve win/win outcomes Minimally acceptable to all
Relationships undamaged Withdraw from the situation
Maintain neutrality Accede to the other party
Maintain harmony Competing Collaborating Avoiding Compromising Accommodating Focus on my needs Focus on others' needs First step... When feelings run high, rational problem solving needs to be preceded by a structured exchange of the emotional aspects of the controversy. After this has been accomplished and the emotions recede, the persons or group may proceed to the next stage. How? Robert Bolton, PEOPLE SKILLS Social pressure to repay in proportion for received favors
More powerful then all other mechanisms
Extort unequal exchanges and unwanted obligations If everyone else is behaving a certain way, most assume that is the right thing to do. Internal and external pressure to behave consistently with the given commitment
When you can get someone to commit verbally to an action, the chances go up sharply that they'll actually do it. Especially effective in situations of Insecurity and Analogy (similarity) Attractiveness
Familiarity - trust through repeated positive interaction
Positive associations Opportunities seem more valuable when they are less available. The possibility of losing something is a more powerful motivator than of gaining something. Sometimes, people confuse the symbols of authority (titles, appearance, possessions) with the true substance.
Association with sources of knowledge, wisdom and power 1 2 3 4 5 6