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Plant and Animal responses

For Biology 3.3
by

Hamish McLellan

on 21 April 2015

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Transcript of Plant and Animal responses

External fertilization
(usually response to environmental cues)
Monogamy
Plant and Animal responses
Taxis
Tropisms
Stimuli
Circalunar
Circatidal
Circadian
Abiotic factors
Some background...
Due to
Earth rotating
on it's axis
3 types:
Due to the
orbit of the moon
e.g. molting cycles in insects
Directional
movement:
Directional growth ("positive" or "negative")
Taxes
and
kineses
are simple,
innate
, responses to stimuli
External 5 credits
Light
Water
Wind
Humidity
Nutrients
Gravity
Temperature
Competition
Cooperation
Aggression
Reproduction
Competition
Exploitation
Mutualism
Commensalism
The stimulus may be:
Light
Water
Gravity
Chemicals
Touch
Temperature
This is called a:
Biotic factors
Intraspecific
Interspecific
Timing
Orientation
Innate
Genetically programmed
responses
Learned
Nocturnal
: active at night
Based on astronomical cycles
"
circa
" = about
Diurnal
: active during the day
Due to the gravitational pull of the moon (and sun), and
orbit of the moon
.
e.g. pretty much anything tidal.
Crepuscular
: active around dawn/dusk
Circannual
Due to the
tilt of the Earth
, and
orbit
of the sun
Exogenous
Controlled by only external stimuli
Endogenous
Controlled by
biological clock
BUT is reset by a
zeitgeber
("time giver")
The zeitgeber
entrains
the organism (keeps it to a cycle)
No zeitgeber (
constant environmental conditions
) reveals the
Free Running Period
of the rhythm
Activity24-5
Adaptive significance
Organisms are active at a time
consistant with their adaptations
, allowing the best reproduction or survival chances.
Using
zeitbeger
means organism can change timing as the seasons change
Biological clock
means that the organism can
predict
change:
-
circadian/circatidal
- e.g. reducing predation, maximising feeding, avoiding adverse conditions
-
circannual
- e.g. conditioning for breeding/overwintering, synchronising reproduction
Activity (actogram) 29
Activity (NCEA style) 31
Named after the
stimulus
that causes the response, e.g:
Photo
Hydro
Gravi/Geo
Chemo
Thigmo
Kinesis
positive
- (towards) or
negative
- (away)
Non-directional
movement in response to
intensity
e.g. Female kakapo moving toward a booming male kakapo...
...positive audiotaxis
ortho
- (change in speed) or
klino
- (change in rate of turning)
e.g. a water boatman swims faster in areas of little food, and slower when there is more...
...chemo orthokinesis
e.g. it also turns more in food-rich environments...
...chemo klinokinesis
Navigation
Homing
The way an animal finds its way from one place to another, includes
homing
and
migration
(but not simple orientations).
The ability to navigate to an original site (often daily)
All
innate
, but experience improves success
Methods:
Landmarks (visual cues)
Magnetic compass
Solar compass
Stellar compass
Chemical
Migration
Long distance
movement, usually
annual
May be return: godwits, blue whales
Might be a part of their life cycle: salmon, monarchs
Requires preparation - feeding, conditioning
Benefits must outweigh the risks
Controlled by
auxin
causing
cell

elongation
or
inhibition
of elongation:
e.g. a stem grows towards light...
Nastic
movements
Fast
,
reversible
Response to change in stimulus -
non-directional
e.g. "sleep" movements...
...photonasty
e.g. mimosa plant ...
...thigmonasty
Results from a sudden change in
turgor pressure
in some cells (in the
pulvinus
):
Plant timing
Circadian - sleep movements, sun tracking
Annual - flowering, germination, abscission (leaf fall)
Photoperiodism
Controls response based on Critical Day Length (CDL) actually length of night (we now know).
Phytochrome system:
2 forms;
Pr
and
Pfr
The concentration of the Pfr determines the flowering of the plant; "short day plants" need a long night to flower (need low conc of Pfr, but we don't really know how)
Activity 32, 33 (#1a, 2, 3)
Commensalism
Interactions
between
species
One benefits (+), another is neither (0), e.g. cattle egrets
Mutualism
Both benefit (+), e.g. finch and tortoise
Activity 59 # 1, 2; Activity 61
Parasitism
Predation
Herbivory
Pollination
(+, -) parasite lives on or in the host, usually without killing it.
Ectoparasite
: free living (e.g. sandfly),
Endoparasite
: live inside (e.g. tapeworm)
This can require a complex life cycle to ensure host is not wiped out.
Avoidance: Camoflage (e.g. stick insect)
Toxin production + warning
Cooperation
Mimicry

- Mullerian (both toxic) or
- Batesian (one's a tricker)
"Arms Race": Speed, strength, size, webs, etc
Animal is +, plant is +
Interspecific
Intraspecific
Courtship
Groups
Many animals live in groups.
Examples?
Advantages:
- Improving young rearing
- Protection from predation
- Effective migration
- Shared learning
- Breeding success
- Division of labour
- Environmental manipulation
- Shared Feeding
Many Pukekos will not breed as they do not have dominance in the group.
Even so, they help gather food, rear young and protect territory. Why?
Hierarchy
- a dominance order. A simple linear one is called a

pecking order
. Reduces conflict within a group.
Territory
Altruistic
behaviour is where a member of a group reduces their chance of reproduction in favour of another member of their group.
Sexual dimorphism
Competition
Mating systems
Competition
Bringing gifts, physical stimulation, synchronised movement, visual cues and voice.
Why?
ensures that the individuals are the same species
suppresses aggressive behaviour
develops pair bond
ensures readiness for breeding
Disadvantages:
- Disease
- Competition
- Predators attracted
This is called
kin selection
. It increases the success rate of the individuals
genes
, through close relatations.
Uses ritualised
dominant
and
submissive
postures and behaviours (
agonistic
behaviours) to confirm heirarchy, mostly without injury.
Parental care
Polygyny
- 1 male has breeding rights with many females
Polyandry
 - 1 female has rights over males  
Polygynandry
results from selection pressures such as males bigger/stronger to defend territory, or sexual selection
roaming area
used to gather resources, may overlap with other groups
Home range
defended area
- reduces the number of conflict interactions between groups.
Plants may
coevolve
with specific pollinators.
Is always negative for all species
Happens when a necessary resource is limited
- remember Gause's law?
Auxin does the opposite thing in stems and roots!
biotic
and
abiotic
factors
a zone with a certain range of factors, e.g. savannah
Environment
Adaptations
... positive photo tropism
Habitat
Niche
inputs and outputs of a species - it's "place in the world"
Animals
Plants
Thermo
Activity 1
Endogenous
Controlled by an (internal)
biological clock
Activity 10, 11, (9)
Activity 4 (no.2), 8, 7
Activity 16-18
Activity 19
Exogenous
e.g. flowering, spawning, migration, etc
Activity 24
Exploitation
(+, -) where one organism gains by harming another.
(+, -) predator kills and eats the prey.
(+, -) herbivore eats (part of) the plant.
Avoidance: Unpallatability, habit, thorns,
mutualism?
Activity 59, 60
Some are simple, unstructured (e.g. fish), some are more complex, structured.
Activity 38
Reproductive behaviours
Activity 42
Activity 43 #1, 2, 3, 5, 6
Activity 52
All parties involved in competition are harmed (-,-). It can end in
aggression
, which costs energy and can cause injury. It is worth avoiding aggression...
e.g. fish
e.g. most birds (and people)
e.g. Lions, Baboons
e.g. Bees.
This is much less common... Why?
e.g. Pukekos, Bonobos
Bringing food, visual displays, synchonised movement, voice...
why all the effort?
Altruism
The more time you spend looking after your offspring, the fewer you can have.
This is an energy cost for the parent, and limits the number of offspring but results in improved survival rates.
Polygamy
Activity 55 #3, 5;
Full transcript