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Plant and Animal responses
Transcript of Plant and Animal responses
(usually response to environmental cues)
Plant and Animal responses
on it's axis
Due to the
orbit of the moon
e.g. molting cycles in insects
Directional growth ("positive" or "negative")
, responses to stimuli
External 5 credits
The stimulus may be:
This is called a:
: active at night
Based on astronomical cycles
" = about
: active during the day
Due to the gravitational pull of the moon (and sun), and
orbit of the moon
e.g. pretty much anything tidal.
: active around dawn/dusk
Due to the
tilt of the Earth
of the sun
Controlled by only external stimuli
BUT is reset by a
the organism (keeps it to a cycle)
No zeitgeber (
constant environmental conditions
) reveals the
Free Running Period
of the rhythm
Organisms are active at a time
consistant with their adaptations
, allowing the best reproduction or survival chances.
means organism can change timing as the seasons change
means that the organism can
- e.g. reducing predation, maximising feeding, avoiding adverse conditions
- e.g. conditioning for breeding/overwintering, synchronising reproduction
Activity (actogram) 29
Activity (NCEA style) 31
Named after the
that causes the response, e.g:
- (towards) or
movement in response to
e.g. Female kakapo moving toward a booming male kakapo...
- (change in speed) or
- (change in rate of turning)
e.g. a water boatman swims faster in areas of little food, and slower when there is more...
e.g. it also turns more in food-rich environments...
The way an animal finds its way from one place to another, includes
(but not simple orientations).
The ability to navigate to an original site (often daily)
, but experience improves success
Landmarks (visual cues)
May be return: godwits, blue whales
Might be a part of their life cycle: salmon, monarchs
Requires preparation - feeding, conditioning
Benefits must outweigh the risks
e.g. a stem grows towards light...
Response to change in stimulus -
e.g. "sleep" movements...
e.g. mimosa plant ...
Results from a sudden change in
in some cells (in the
Circadian - sleep movements, sun tracking
Annual - flowering, germination, abscission (leaf fall)
Controls response based on Critical Day Length (CDL) actually length of night (we now know).
The concentration of the Pfr determines the flowering of the plant; "short day plants" need a long night to flower (need low conc of Pfr, but we don't really know how)
Activity 32, 33 (#1a, 2, 3)
One benefits (+), another is neither (0), e.g. cattle egrets
Both benefit (+), e.g. finch and tortoise
Activity 59 # 1, 2; Activity 61
(+, -) parasite lives on or in the host, usually without killing it.
: free living (e.g. sandfly),
: live inside (e.g. tapeworm)
This can require a complex life cycle to ensure host is not wiped out.
Avoidance: Camoflage (e.g. stick insect)
Toxin production + warning
- Mullerian (both toxic) or
- Batesian (one's a tricker)
"Arms Race": Speed, strength, size, webs, etc
Animal is +, plant is +
Many animals live in groups.
- Improving young rearing
- Protection from predation
- Effective migration
- Shared learning
- Breeding success
- Division of labour
- Environmental manipulation
- Shared Feeding
Many Pukekos will not breed as they do not have dominance in the group.
Even so, they help gather food, rear young and protect territory. Why?
- a dominance order. A simple linear one is called a
. Reduces conflict within a group.
behaviour is where a member of a group reduces their chance of reproduction in favour of another member of their group.
Bringing gifts, physical stimulation, synchronised movement, visual cues and voice.
ensures that the individuals are the same species
suppresses aggressive behaviour
develops pair bond
ensures readiness for breeding
- Predators attracted
This is called
. It increases the success rate of the individuals
, through close relatations.
postures and behaviours (
behaviours) to confirm heirarchy, mostly without injury.
- 1 male has breeding rights with many females
- 1 female has rights over males
results from selection pressures such as males bigger/stronger to defend territory, or sexual selection
used to gather resources, may overlap with other groups
- reduces the number of conflict interactions between groups.
with specific pollinators.
Is always negative for all species
Happens when a necessary resource is limited
- remember Gause's law?
Auxin does the opposite thing in stems and roots!
a zone with a certain range of factors, e.g. savannah
... positive photo tropism
inputs and outputs of a species - it's "place in the world"
Controlled by an (internal)
Activity 10, 11, (9)
Activity 4 (no.2), 8, 7
e.g. flowering, spawning, migration, etc
(+, -) where one organism gains by harming another.
(+, -) predator kills and eats the prey.
(+, -) herbivore eats (part of) the plant.
Avoidance: Unpallatability, habit, thorns,
Activity 59, 60
Some are simple, unstructured (e.g. fish), some are more complex, structured.
Activity 43 #1, 2, 3, 5, 6
All parties involved in competition are harmed (-,-). It can end in
, which costs energy and can cause injury. It is worth avoiding aggression...
e.g. most birds (and people)
e.g. Lions, Baboons
This is much less common... Why?
e.g. Pukekos, Bonobos
Bringing food, visual displays, synchonised movement, voice...
why all the effort?
The more time you spend looking after your offspring, the fewer you can have.
This is an energy cost for the parent, and limits the number of offspring but results in improved survival rates.
Activity 55 #3, 5;
In fact, most responses have an element of both.