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Revolution Spreads Across the World
Transcript of Revolution Spreads Across the World
The Enlightenment Spawns Revolutions
Philosophes such as Voltaire considered England's government the most progressive in Europe.
The Glorious Revolution of 1688 had given England a constitutional monarchy
various laws limited the power of the English king.
Despite this, a growing number of England's colonists in North America accused England of tyrannical rule.
Emboldened by Enlightenment ideas, they would attempt to overthrow what was then the mightiest power on earth and create their own nation.
Setting the Stage for Revolution
By the mid-1700s, colonists had been living in America for nearly 150 years.
Each of the 13 colonies had its own government and people were used to a great degree of independence.
colonists saw themselves less as British and more as Virginians or Pennsylvanians
they were still British subjects though and were expected to obey British laws
Even with restrictive trade laws and high taxes, colonial merchants thrived.
1754 - war breaks out between the English and the French
The Seven Years War Leads to Revolution
Britain emerges victorious and seized nearly all French land in North America
Problems with the victory:
Britain had run up a huge debt fighting the war
Because American colonists benefited from Britain's victory, Britain expected the colonists to help pay the costs of war
taxes, taxes, and more taxes
(see Taxes & Acts Chart)
The Influence of the Enlightenment and Religion
colonial leaders used Enlightenment ideas to justify independence.
the colonists were justified in rebelling against a tyrant who had broken the social contract by not guaranteeing the colonists the same political rights as those in Britain
Thomas Jefferson - author of the Declaration of Independence - was influenced by the ideas of Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke and William Blackstone
Many ministers spoke to their parishioners about supporting the revolution
One went as far as to say that the revolution was the "cause of heaven against hell."
Enlightenment Ideas and the U.S. Constitution
The American Revolution Inspires the French
the French were already seeking reform in their own country
they saw the new government of the U.S. as the fulfillment of Enlightenment ideals
the Declaration of Independence was widely circulated and admired in France
French officers who had fought for American independence told their fellow citizens about the war.
"We talked of nothing but America" - a frenchman
France in the 1700's
considered the most advanced country of Europe
prosperous foreign trade
the center of the Enlightenment
Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau
culture was widely praised and imitated by the rest of the world
The Old Regime of France
the social system of France was divided into three large social classes called estates
The First Estate
made up of clergy of Roman Catholic Church
scorned Enlightenment Ideas
access to high offices
exempted from taxes
owned 10% of the land in France
contributed about 2% of its income to the government
The Second Estate
made up of rich nobles
held highest offices in government
disagreed about Enlightenment ideas
accounted for 2% of the population but owned 20% of the land
paid almost no taxes
The Third Estate
about 97% of people belonged to this estate
included the bourgeoisie (middle class), urban lower class, and peasant farmers (80% of France's population)
had no power to influence the government
embraced Enlightenment ideas
resented the wealthy First and Second Estates
Other Factors Contributing to the Revolutionary Mood in France
new views about power and authority in government
writings of John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau
the Glorious Revolution in Britain that limited the king's power
the American Revolution
heavy taxes made it impossible to make profits
cost of living was rising
bad weather in the 1780's caused widespread crop failures, resulting in grain shortages
price of bread doubled in 1789, people were facing starvation
government was deeply in debt due to the spending of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
not to mention the debt inherited from prior kings like Louis XIV
Louis XVI was indecisive and allowed matter to drift
paid little attention to his government advisers
had little patience for the details of governing
Marie often interfered in the government, frequently offering Louis poor advice
Marie was unpopular because she was a member of the royal family of Austria, France's enemy
Marie spent too much money on gowns, jewels, gambling, and gifts
became known as "Madame Deficit"
Louis' solution to debt was to impose taxes on the nobility
The National Assembly & The Tennis Court Oath
The Third Estate attempted to initiate a more democratic system when they insisted on a more representative voting system.
They insisted that all three estates meet together and that each estate's votes would be equal to the number of delegates it had. (The Third Estate's delegates far outnumbered the first and second.)
King Louis refused.
The Third Estate's response was to create the National Assembly, a representative governing body of the people
this was the first deliberate act of revolution because it essentially proclaimed an end to the absolute monarchy
On the date of their first meeting they were locked out of their meeting house.
They broke down a door to an indoor tennis court, pledging to stay until they had drawn up a new constitution. This pledge became known as the Tennis Court Oath.
In response, Louis stationed his mercenary army of Swiss guards around the Palace of Versailles
Storming the Bastille
People began to gather weapons in fear of Louis' show of force
July 14, 1789 - a mob searching for gunpowder and arms stormed the Bastille, a Paris prison
seized control of the buildings
hacked the prison commander and several guards to death and then paraded around the streets with the dead men's heads on pikes.
the fall of the Bastille became a great symbolic act of revolution to the French people.
July 14th is a national holiday in France, called Bastille Day (similar to the 4th of July in the U.S.)
The Great Fear
rebellion spread from Paris into the countryside
wild rumors spread that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize the peasants.
a wave of senseless panic called the Great Fear spread through France
peasants became outlaws
armed with pitch forks and farm tools they would break into nobles' houses and destroy the legal papers that bound them to pay feudal dues
in some cases they would burn down the manor houses
October 1789 - thousands of Parisian women rioted over the price of bread and marched on Versailles armed with knives, axes, and other weapons
broke into the palace, killing some guards and demanded that the King and Queen return to Paris.
The Assembly Reforms France
August 4, 1789 - eliminate all feudal privileges of the First and Second Estates, thus making commoners equal to the nobles and clergy
The Declaration of the Rights of Man
reflected the influence of Enlightenment ideas and the Declaration of Independence.
"men are born and remain free and equal in rights."
These rights included "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression"
guaranteed citizens equal justice, freedom of speech and freedom of religion.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity (the slogan of revolutionary leaders)
**this only applied to men**
when a woman named Olympe de Gouges published a declaration of the rights of women, it was rejected, she was declared and enemy of the Revolution and subsequently executed.
Many peasants (who were devout Catholics) were appalled by the National Assembly's seizure of the church. Peasants were now opposed to the assembly's reforms.
For two years the National Assembly argued over a new constitution for France.
September 1791, the National Assembly completed the new constitution, which King Louis reluctantly approved
a limited constitutional monarchy
stripped the king of much of his authority
created a new legislative body called the Legislative Assembly
had the power to create laws, approve or reject declarations of war
king still held the executive power to enforce laws
old problems such as food shortages and government debt remained
how to handle these problems cause the Legislative Assembly to split into three groups
Radicals (who sat on the left) opposed the ideas of a monarchy and wanted sweeping changes in the way the government was run.
Moderates (who sat in the center) wanted some changes in government, but not as many as the radicals
Conservatives (who sat on the right) upheld the idea of a limited monarchy and wanted few changes
France at War
France's neighbors, Austria and Prussia, were very nervous about the Revolution and urged the French to restore Louis to his position as an absolute monarch.
The Legislative Assembly responded by declaring war in April 1792
The Prussian commander threatened to destroy Paris if the revolutionaries harmed any member of the royal family.
August 10 - 20,000 men and women massacred the royal guards and imprisoned King Louis, Marie Antoinette, and their children
The Legislative Assembly declared the king deposed, dissolved the assembly and called for the election of a new legislature.
The National Convention took over, declared France a republic and granted ever adult
citizen the right to vote.
The Jacobin Club (a radical political organization)
Jean-Paul Marat called for the death of all those who continued to support the king.
National Convention tried Louis for treason, found him guilty, and sentenced him to death via guillotine
Great Britain, Holland, and Spain joined Austria and Prussia in the war against France
Maximilien Robespierre, a Jacobin leader, gained power in the early months of 1793
set out to build a "republic of virtue" by wiping out every trace of France's past
changed the calendar
eliminated Sundays because they considered religion old-fashioned and dangerous
closed all the churches in Paris
Robespierre became leader of the Committee of Public Safety
governed France as a dictator
period of his rule became known as "The Reign of Terror"
committee often had "enemies" of the Revolution tried in the morning and guillotined in the afternoon
enemies were usually fellow radicals who challenged Robespierre's authority.
Marie Antoinette was executed during this time.
40,000 were executed during the Terror
85% were peasants or members of the urban poor or middle class
July 1794 - The National Convention arrested and executed Robespierre
National Convention created a new government (the third one) and made Napoleon Bonaparte the general of the French army.
Napoleon Seizes Power
joined the army of the new government right after the revolution broke out.
October 1795 he commanded a gunner batallion and scared a mob of royalist rebels away from the National Convention.
became a hero and was hailed as the savior of the French republic.
1796 - appointed to lead a French army against Austria and had a series of remarkable victories.
he attempted to repeat this success in Egypt where he was trying to disrupt British trade with India but was unable to do so.
managed to keep the stories of his failures out of the newspapers and thereby remained the hero of France.
November 1799 - Napoleon's troops surrounded the national legislature in a coup d'etat where he was set up as one of three consuls
quickly took the title of first consul and assumed the powers of a dictator
Britain, Austria, and Russia joined forces to drive Napoleon from power
By 1802, after a lot of war and diplomacy, all three nations signed peace treaties with France and Europe was at peace for the first time in 10 years.
Napoleon Rules France
at first he pretended to be the constitutionally chosen leader of a free republic
supported laws that would both strengthen the central government and achieve some of the goals of the Revolution
set up an efficient method of tax collection and established a national banking system
took steps to end corruption and inefficiency in government
set up government run public schools
open to male students of all backgrounds
signed an agreement with Pope Pius VII
government recognized the influence of the Church but rejected Church control in national affairs
comprehensive system of laws
eliminated many injustices
limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights
freedom of speech and the press were restricted
slavery was restored in the French colonies in the Caribbean
1804 - crowned himself Emperor
The Haitian Revolution
When the ideas of the French Revolution reached the French planters in Saint Domingue (a city in what is today, Haiti) they wanted the same rights as all the French citizens in France
Enslaved Africans demanded their rights too.
A civil war erupted and enslaved Africans under the leadership of Toussaint L'Ouverture seized control of the colony. (Haitian Revolution)
Stop Here For Today!!!!!
Stop Here For Today!!!
...And We're Back to Napoleon
After failing in Haiti, Napoleon sells French landholdings in North America to the U.S. in the Louisiana Purchase
not only did Napoleon gain $15 million to finance his empire building in Europe but he punished the British.
"The sale assures forever the power of the United States, and I have given England a rival who, sooner or later, will humble her pride."
He had already annexed the Austrian Netherlands and parts of Italy to France and had set up a puppet government in Switzerland
Now he looked to expand his influence even further
Britain persuaded Russia, Austria, and Sweden to join them against France.
Napoleon's troops crushed the opposition.
the rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia signed peace treaties with France
Lost only one major battle: The Battle of Trafalgar (naval battle)
British Commander was Horatio Nelson
destroyed the French fleet
ensured supremacy of the British navy for the next 100 years
forced Napoleon to give up his plans of invading Britain
The French Empire
by 1812, the only areas of Europe free from Napoleon's control were Britain, Portugal, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire
controlled numerous supposedly independent countries through puppet governments
Grand Duchy of Warsaw
a number of German kingdoms
Russia, Prussia, and Austria were easily manipulated by Napoleon through threat of military action
loosely connected to his empire through alliances
Napoleon was only able to maintain his empire at its greatest extent for five years (1807-1812)
sudden collapse was caused in part by Napoleon's actions
Napoleon's Continental System
November 1806 - sets up a blockade, a forcible closing of ports, to prevent all trade and communication between Great Britain and other European nations.
called this policy the Continental System
it was supposed to make continental Europe more self-sufficient
intended to destroy Great Britain's commercial and industrial economy.
Smugglers managed to bring cargo from Britain into Europe
Napoleon's allies often disregarded the blockade.
Britain responded with its own blockade
stopped neutral ships bound for the continent and forced them to sail to a British port to be searched and taxed
American ships were among those stopped
Angered, the U.S. Congress declared war on Britain in 1812
The War of 1812 lasted two years and was only a minor inconvenience to Britain in its struggle with Napoleon
The Peninsular War
1808 - sent an invasion force through Spain in an effort to get Portugal to accept the Continental System.
the Spanish protested this action
Napoleon removed the Spanish king and put his own brother, Joseph, on the throne.
outraged the Spanish people
worried that France would try to weaken the Catholic Church in Spain just like they did in France
For six years, bands of peasant guerrilla fighters fought against French armies in Spain.
worked in small groups and would ambush French troops and then flee into hiding
Britain sent troops to aid the Spanish
Napoleon lost 300,000 men during the Peninsular Wars
Nationalism begins to rise as people feel abused by a foreign conqueror
Spanish, Germans, Italians, and other conquered people begin turning against the French
the Invasion of Russia
Alexander I (Russian czar) refused to stop selling grain to Britain.
Napoleon and Alexander suspected each other of having competing designs on Poland
Napoleon decides to invade Russia
June 1812 - Napoleon and 420,000 soldiers march into Russia
Alexander continued to pull back his troops and as they retreated they would burn grain fields and slaughter livestock so as to leave nothing for the enemy to eat.
September 1812 - Battle of Borodino
Russians forced to fall back
Alexander ordered Moscow to be burned to the ground so that they did not have to surrender their "holy city" to Napoleon
Napoleon stayed in the ruined city until October and then decided to go back to France
Winter arrived and snow and temperatures dropped
Russian raiders constantly attacked Napoleon's retreating army
many died from hunger, exhaustion, and the cold
the last survivors made it out of Russia in December
only 10,000 were left to fight.
Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden joined forces after Napoleon's retreat from Russia
Austria also declared war on France
Napoleon managed to raise another army but most of his troops were untrained
easily defeated and in 1814, King Frederick William III of Prussia and Czar Alexander I of Russia led their troops through Paris
April 1814 - Napoleon surrendered and gave up his throne
they gave Napoleon a small pension and exile him to the island of Elba, off the Italian coast.
Louis XVI's brother assumed the French throne as Louis XVII
very unpopular because they suspected him of wanting to undo all the Revolution's land reforms
Napoleon escaped Elba and returned to joyous crowds in Paris in March 1814
within days he was once again the Emperor of France
Britain and Prussia joined forces again and defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
ended Napoleon's last bid for power, called the Hundred Days
they sent him to St. Helena, a remote island in the south Atlantic
died six years later of a stomach illness, likely cancer
Stop Here for Today!!!!
The Congress of Vienna
After exiling Napoleon, European leaders tried to restore order and reestablish peace.
their goal was collective security and stability for the entire continent
a series of meetings were called to set up policies to achieve this goal
called The Congress of Vienna
scheduled to last 4 weeks but went on for 8 months
most decisions made in Vienna were made in secret among the representatives of the five "great powers" - Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France
the most influential representative was the foreign minister of Austria, Prince Klemens von Metternich
distrusted the democratic ideals of the French Revolution
believed Napoleon's behavior was a natural outcome of experiments with democracy
"The first and greatest concern for the immense majority of every nation is the stability of laws - never their change."
Metternich's three goals:
prevent future French agression by surrounding France with strong countries
restore a balance of power so that no country would be a threat to others
restore Europe's royal families to the thrones they had held before Napoleon's conquests
Goal #1: Containment of France
the following steps were taken to make the weak countries around France stronger:
the former Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic were united to form the Kingdom of the Netherlands
a group of 39 German states were loosely joined as the newly created German Confederation, dominated by Austria
Switzerland was recognized as an independent nation
The Kingdom of Sardinia in Italy was strengthened by the addition of Genoa.
Goal #2: Balance of Power
they wanted to weaken France but did not want to leave it powerless
if they severely punished France, they might encourage the French to take revenge
if they broke France up, then another country might become so strong that it would threaten them all
France remained a major but diminished European power
also, no country in Europe could easily overpower another.
Goal #3: Legitimacy
affirmed the principle of legitimacy - agreeing that as many as possible of the rulers whom Napoleon had driven from their thrones be restored to power.
the ruling families of France, Spain, and several states in Italy and Central Europe regained their thrones
believed that the return of the former monarchs would stabilize political relations among the nations
A Political Triumph
for the first time, the nations of an entire continent had cooperated to control political affairs
settlements were fair enough that no country was left bearing a grudge
did not sow seeds of future wars
more successful than many other peace meetings in history
nearly 40 years went by without war between the five great powers
Changes Beyond Vienna
Britain and France now had constitutional monarchies
the governments in Eastern and Central Europe were more conservative
Russia, Prussia, and Austria were absolute monarchs
very nervous about the legacy of the French Revolution
worried that those ideals might cause more revolutions
Holy Alliance: an agreement signed by Russia, Austria, and Prussia
pledged to base their relations with other nations on Christian principles in order to combat the forces of revolution
Concert of Europe: series of alliances devised by Metternich
nations would help each other if any revolutions broke out
the ideas of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution could not be contained
France was deeply divided politically
there was a mixture of ideas and factions in other countries that would spawn revolutions in 1830 and 1848
Revolutions in Latin America
When Napoleon deposed the king of Spain during the Peninsular War, liberal creoles (colonists born in Spanish America) seized control of many colonies in the Americas
When the Congress of Vienna restored the king to the Spanish throne, royalist peninsulares (colonists born in Spain) tried to regain control of these colonial governments.
the creoles attempted to retain and expand their power
the Spanish king took steps to tighten control over the Spanish American colonies
this action angered the Mexicans, rose in revolt and gained their independence from Spain
Other Spanish colonies also claimed independence
at about the same time, Brazil declared independence from Portugal
Long-Term Legacy of the Congress of Vienna
influenced world politics for the next 100 years
the continent-wide efforts to establish and maintain a balance of power diminished the size and the power of France
at the same time, the power of Britain and Prussia increased
Nationalism began to spread in Italy, Germany, Greece, and other areas that the Congress had put under foreign control
eventually these feelings would explode into revolutions and new nations would be formed
Spanish colonies took advantage of the events in Europe to declare independence and break away from Spain
ideas about the basis of power and authority had changed permanently as a result of the French Revolution
democracy was being seen as the best way to ensure equality and justice for all
A Closer Look At Latin America's Revolutions
Peninsulares vs. Creoles
only peninsulares could hold high office in the colonial government
creoles could rise as officers in colonial armies but could not hold office
The South American wars of independence rested on the achievements of two brilliant creole generals.
Simon Bolivar, a wealthy Venezuelan creole
Jose de San Martin, an Argentinian
Venezuela declared its independence from Spain in 1811
suffered numerous defeats
twice Bolivar had to go into exile
August 1819, Bolivar won a decisive victory in Bogota, Colombia
1821, Venezuela won its independence
marched south into Ecuador where he met San Martin
Argentina declared independence in 1816
1817 - marched his forces to Chile to help them gain independence
1821-1824: joins forces with Bolivar help the last Spanish colonies gain independence
Mexico ends Spanish Rule
In most Latin American countries, creoles led the revolutionary movements
In Mexico, ethnic and racial groups mixed more freely
there Indians and mestizos played the leading role
1810 - Padre Miguel Hidalgo, a priest in the town of Dolores, took the first step towards independence
firmly believed in Enlightenment ideals
called the peasants to the church and issue a call for rebellion against the Spanish, called the
grito de Dolores
(the cry of Dolores)
the next day Hidalgo's Indian and mestizo followers marched toward Mexico City (around 80,000 men)
the army defeated Hidalgo in 1811
rebels rallied under Padre Jose Maria Morelos
led the revolution for 4 years
1815 - a creole officer, Augustin de Iturbide, defeated him
1820 - a revolution in Spain caused Mexico's creoles to unite in support of Mexico's independence from Spain
Augustin de Iturbide proclaimed independence in 1821
several Central American states declared independence from Spain and Mexico
Iturbide, who had declared himself emperor of Mexico, refused to recognize the declarations of independence
Iturbide was overthrown in 1823
Brazil's Royal Liberator
unique because they gained independence without violent upheavals or widespread bloodshed.
a member of the Portuguese royal family actually played a key role in freeing Brazil from Portugal
1807 - When Napoleon invaded Spain and Portugal the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil
Rio de Janiero became the capital of the Portuguese empire
For 14 years, the Portuguese ran their empire from Brazil
After Napoleon's defeat, in 1815, the family returned to Portugal six years later.
Dom Pedro, King John's son, stayed behind in Brazil
King John planned on making Brazil a colony again
many Brazilians could not accept a return to colonial status
1822 - creoles demanded Brazil's independence
8,000 Brazilians signed a petition asking Dom Pedro to rule
Sept. 7, 1822 - he officially declared Brazil's independence
Europe Faces Revolutions
Europe is restore on the international level by the Congress of Vienna but within each country problems are boiling
in the first half of the 1800s, three schools of political thought struggled for supremacy in European societies.
conservative: usually wealthy property owners and nobility
liberal: usually middle-class business leaders and merchants
radical: could be anyone
the belief that people's greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history