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Transcript of Building Construction
Windows & Doors
Damp Proof Course
Some of the earliest solutions involved the inclusion of an impervious layer of slate in the construction, but contemporary construction practices use a plastic sheet such as polythene, or a bituminous felt. This is called a damp proof course and is positioned in the structure around 2 brick courses above external ground level.
A damp-proof course is a barrier in a masonry wall designed to resist moisture rising through the structure by capillary action. This phenomenon is known as rising damp. The ground-level dpc is required to be at least 150mm above the ground level. This is to protect from splash back from rain, and to ensure a minimum amount of elevation above any standing water.
Diagram of DPC
Damp Proof Course Outside View
The soil level outside is generally kept below the level within. This prevents water from coming into the building. Should the ground level outside he higher than within there will be a risk of water ingress or at the very least damp and moisture penetrating the walls above the dpc. This would result in mould and fungal attack within the visible walls.
Concrete, Cement & Mortar
Cement is a powdery substance made by calcining lime and clay, mixed with water to form mortar or mixed with sand, gravel, and water to make concrete.
Like mortar, concrete is a mixture of sand, cement, and water, but it also contains rock chippings or gravel. This makes it stronger and more durable than mortar. Because it needs a low water to cement ratio, it is thinner when mixed, making it difficult to use as a bonding element. Concrete is used in structural projects and is often reinforced with steel rebar to maintain its structural integrity as the soil beneath it settles. It is best used for support, such as beams, walls, or other building foundations.
Mortar is a mixture of lime with cement, sand, and water, used in building to bond bricks or stones. The water is used to hydrate the cement and hold the mix together. The water to cement ratio is higher in mortar than in concrete in order to form its bonding element. When mixed, it is a much thicker substance than concrete, making it ideal as a glue for building materials like brick.
Cavity & Solid Wall Construction
Solid external walls were originally constructed of solid masonry such as stone brick or concrete blocks. The thickness of the wall means that most of the moisture will evaporate from the outer surface. Some of the moisture will still penetrate. The recent developments in paint technology mean that the paint surface acts as an impermeable surface and water cannot pass freely. Walls will remain permenantly damp which can mark the wall covering, cause it to peel off and cause other problems. Walls can be plastered to create a suitable surface for decorating. Because of these problesms in the 21st century solid walls have been replaced by cavity construction.
Cavity walls make better thermal insulators than solid walls due to the layer of air between the two leaves. The cavity can also have insulating materials inserted into it to further improve this property. The cavity also reduces transmission of moisture thus reducing damp. The leaves are tied together at regular intervals for added stability. The outer leaf is generally constructed of brick or another weatherproof construction material. The inner leaf would be brick, block or timber frame. DPC's are added around windows or doors where the cavity is breached.
The post and lintel system is where two upright members (the posts) hold up a third member (the lintel). Laid horizontally across their top surfaces. All structural openings have evolved from this system.
Post And Lintel
In sash windows the box frame is set into the brickwork flush on the inside. It is screw fixed into the brickwork, filled with expanding foam then sealed with mastic. Fixed light installation is when the masonry is built around the window frame and includes a vertical dpc.
A drip detail is incorporated into the underside of the sill to discourage surface adhesion and seepage via capillary action.
Because the cavity between the inner and outer leaves of the wall is breached by the window frame, a dpc will be fitted around the window when it is installed. The point where the opening part of the frame meets the fixed part is also carefully detailed to reduce the potential ingress of water through capillary action.
Preventing Damp Penetration
Flat roofs are constructed by laying a deck (often of plywood) over the ceiling joists, and waterproofing this with a covering of a material such as bituminous felt, metal sheeting or GRP.
Flat roofs rest easily on the wall structure below them, but a pitched roof will create quite considerable lateral forces that could make the wall structure unstable if not countered. For this reason, the sloping rafters are tied together with the ceiling joists immediately below them. depending upon the size of the roof, there may be additional horizontal supports called purlins that run across the rafters. These may be braced further still by extending them down to the ceiling rafters to create a purlin wall.
At the apex of the roof structure, the rafters will be joined to a ridge piece; a board the runs horizontally along the ridge line.
Slate, ceramic tile, membrane roofing, metal roofing, concrete or fibre cement, bitumen, pvc, fabric, thatch- plant stalks in overlapping layers
A load bearing wall is one which supports other elements of the building, such as the roof - part of the roof structure is sometimes supported by internal walls.
Non Load Baring
Non-Load bearing walls provide separation between rooms and are not required to transfer loads. Timber stud plasterboard partitions are used in residential applications, both in new housing and refurbishment. They are fixed in with screws and have to be plastered afterwards to take decoration.
The walls in my living room are painted in silk emulsion. The ceiling is matt emulsion, There is a feature wall that has been wallpapered.
The skirting board is generally a wooden board running along the base of an interior wall. It covers the uneven junction between the flooring and the wall. It also functions to protect the wall from kicks, abrasion, and furniture. Historically skirting boards were necessary when walls were wet-plastered to account for the difficulty in achieving a neat edge to the plaster at the bottom of the wall but with modern engineered materials there is less need for skirting boards other than as a decorative molding.
My Living Room
A dado rail is a decorative waist-high moulding round the wall of a room. It functions to protect the wall from damage. The height is perfect for backs of chairs and most furniture. It is fixed by to the wall by screws or adhesive.
A picture rail is a horizontal strip of wood on a wall from which pictures can be hung. It protects the wall from damage from nails.
A cornice is an ornamental moulding round the wall of a room just below the ceiling. It provides an attractive finish at the junction between the ceiling and the wall.
A system supplying a public need such as transport, communications, or utilities such as electricity and water.
Most homes receive their water from a water utility, the rest get their water from wells or storage tanks. Most homes receive municipal water and the first part of the system is the water main, typically located at the edge of the property. The water main provides a main valve that allows the shut off of the entire water supply for a home. The water main typically also includes a water meter, with which the utility company can monitor your usage. After the meter, a water line goes toward the home. The pipe is buried and in areas that have freezing temperatures the depth is set by the local depth of the frost line. Supply lines to the house can be plastic, copper or galvanized iron pipe. Before the water supply line enters the home, or just after in colder climates, the supply will often have a back-flow preventer installed, to prevent low pressure from allowing contaminated water being drawn into the main water supply. Once inside the home, the water line typically goes directly to the home's water heater, to ensure adequate water pressure to the hot water supply. The cold water line splits here, between the water heater and for the rest of the house. The cold water line that enters the water heater then becomes the beginning of the hot water supply system. The other line or lines that split off will go to locations throughout the house.
Any water used within the home that is not consumed enters the drain system in order to be removed from the building. Water leaving our homes generally goes either into a septic tank where it seeps back into the ground or it is sent to a sewage-treatment plant through a sewer system. In a sewer system the wastewater flows to the main waste and vent stack. The main stack curves to become a sewer line that exits the house near the foundation. This runs to a collector sewer line in the street or in the rear of the home. Where sewer service is not available the line runs to a septic system, which is in essence a mini-wastewater treatment facility
Drainage systems are designed so that no matter what goes on below ground level you should not get any venting at ground level or within the property. All internal fittings such as sinks, toilets and showers should have water traps fitted and waste pipes from dishwashers & washing machines should also pass through a water trap of some description.
The p-trap traps water in its dip, sealing off the pipe.
As water flows down the drain, the water level rises and flows down the drain pipe with accompanying waste to the sewage system.
As the water stops flowing, the water balances out and new water becomes trapped again in the dip of the p-trap. This water eliminates space for any air or gases to flow back up through the drain.
Preventing Foul Smells
Architect’s Pocket Book
Getting the Builders In
Collins Complete DIY Manual
Construction for Interior Designers
Marshall, Duncan, Worthing, Derek,
The Construction of Houses
Building Construction Handbook
by Roy Chudley and Roger Greeno (16 Apr 2014)
Barry's Introduction to Construction
of Buildings by Stephen Emmitt and Christopher Gorse
Scott McBride Build Like a Pro: Expert Advice from Start to Finish: Windows and Doors
UNPUBLISHED INTERVIEW: Thatcher, Colin. Interview by Charlotte Crocker. Harlow, 13/07/14.
UNPUBLISHED INTERVIEW: Crocker, John. Interview by Charlotte Crocker. Hatfield Heath, 18/07/14.
VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2mdCfGrxqI g
Simple staircases can be bought 'off-the-shelf', or fabricated to an individual design using standard parts. Depending on their construction they can be moved as a single piece or in several parts.
The pitch directs rain water to the gutter via gravity. Even flat roofs have a very slight pitch called a 'fall'. The main purpose of a rain gutter is to protect a building's foundation by channeling water away from its base. Water collected by a rain gutter is fed, usually via a downpipe, from the roof edge to the base of the building where it is either discharged or collected. Water from rain gutters may be collected in a rain barrel or a cistern.
Gutter & Downpipe
Tread depth = 230mm
Individual rise height = 180mm
Number of Steps= 13
DPC visible before finishing
Replacing a UPVC Window
A jointed device that allows pivoting
The door stile to which the hinges are applied.
A side post or surface of a doorway, window, or fireplace.
the hardware and components that make up the locking or latching mechanism
Casement Window Diagram