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Ajit Govindarajan

on 4 February 2014

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Link to a YouTube video:
Background on the Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was the start of better methods of manufacturing and from a period of 1760 to between 1820-1840. As Nobel Prize winner Robert E. Lucas, Jr. said "For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth ... Nothing remotely like this economic behavior is mentioned by the classical economists, even as a theoretical possibility."
Background on the Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was the real transition between hand on work and machines developing. The Industrial Revolution included the ideas of water and steam power. Also iron production went up along with new chemical manufacturing. Also the Industrial Revolution introduced the use of coal instead of wood.
Background on the Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a big turning point in history because of he way that is changed every day life and the development of the economies as the average income went up substantially.
Where did the Industrial Revolution happen?
Broke out in Britain in 1760's

What Caused (and sustained) the Industrial Revolution
Broad Effects of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution caused a need for natural resources that caused the Age of Exploration and later Imperialism
The Industrial Revolution and "Great Expectations"
Advances of the Industrial Revolution.
Coal Mining
How the Industrial Revolution affected Dickens
Dickens grew up in a factory common of the industrial revolution and during a time of great social shift
Textual Evidence of the Industrial Revolution
Other Characters and the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution in Modern times
"Great Expectations" frequently mentions direct effects of the Industrial Revolution.

Also, the book is heavily based off of the social context created by the Industrial Revolution
Pip's relationship to the Industrial Revolution
Spread to Western Europe and America the following decades
Not fully felt until 1820's or 1830's
"...and never saw any likeness of them either (for their days were long before the days of photographs)" p. 3 -- Photographs were created during the Industrial Revolution
"I derived from this, that Joe's education, like Steam, was yet in its infancy." p. 46 --Pip references steam power, one of the most important inventions of the Industrial Revolution
"He replied, 'A capitalist- an Insurer of Ships.'" p. 183-- During the Industrial Revolution, capitalism became more popular and many became businessmen, like Herbert
1. Agricultural revolution
2. Population boom (partial result of agricultural revolution and less starvation)
3. Natural resources
Later in the book, Pip desires to become a capitalist an idea that did not really exist until the Industrial revolution
4. New technologies/transport systems
Textile Production
5. Move from rural to urban
6. Growing demand/expanding market
In the beginning of the book, Pip is is called a commoner by Estella and wants to become a gentleman. A rise in class was almost impossible until the Industrial Revolution.
Improved agricultural science
Farm implements made from metal
Larger scale farming operations

Working class had little to no bargaining power
Terrible working conditions: 10-14 hrs a day, 6 days a week (up to ~70 hrs total)
Factory production
Flying shuttle, roller spinner
Very dangerous prior to the Industrial Revolution
Improved ventilation and illumination
Better transportation of coal
Use of gunpowder
Larger production
Life during Revolution
Introduction of railways
Faster transportation of goods
More trade
Coal Miners
New techniques and improved methods boosted iron production during the early 18th century.
City scene
The greatest accomplishment of the Industrial Revolution.
Applied to most industries
Factory scene
Village life to factory: drastic change for first generation workers
Pre-industrial: 80% of people in rural areas
By 1850, for first time every, more people in a country (Gr. Britain) lived in cities than countryside
Jaggers is part of the middle class, created in part by the industrial revolution.
In the end of the book, we find out that Magwitch was sent to the New World (Australia, a British prison colony), which was discovered during the age of exploration which the Industrial Revolution caused.
Dickens frequently comments on the effects of the Industrial Revolution in his books.
Full transcript