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Chemistry Project

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woojin choi

on 27 June 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry Project


1.Alkanes
Organic Chemistry
2. Structural Isomers
3.Cycloalkane & Halo Groups
Introduction
6. Functional Groups
Befor we move on......





1 Mono Meth
2 Di Eth
3 Tri Prop
4 Tetra But
5 Penta Penta
6 Hexa Hexa
7 Hepta Hepta
8 Octa Octa
9 Nona Nona
10 Deca Deca
4.Alkenes&Alkynes
Alkenes: an organic compound containing a carbon-carbon double bond.
What is an organic chemistry?
Organic Chemistry is an study of carbon and the study of the chemistry of life.
Why is organic chemistry important?
This is so important that it handle the study of life and all of the chemical reactions related to our daily lives.
What are we going to learn today?
Step....
1. Alkanes
2. Structural Isomers
3. Cycloalkanes& Halo groups
4. Alkenes& Alkynes
5. Alcohols
6. The other functional groups
7. Review
Explain steps/methods/tricks for naming
1. Name and number the longest carbon chain as for a straight chain alkane
2. Identify each of the branches
3. Use the lowest number combinations for the branches
4. Name each branch or side-chain (alkyl group)
5. For more than 1 of the same alkyl group use
6. Use commas between numbers, e.g. 1,2 or 2,3
7. Use hyphens between numbers and words, e.g. 2-methyl or 2,3- dimethyl
8. If there is more than 1 type of branch or side-chain, arrange their names alphabetically
How to draw structural, line, condensed, molecular diagrames?
Molecular
Structural
Line
Condensed
Examples of Alkanes
1.
pentane
Here has five carbons without any branches so it's called pentane.
2.
3-methyl heptane
The longest carbon chain is seven, so it's heptane and branch is in third of the chain with methyl.
3-methyl octane
The longest carbon chain is eight so it's octane
and branch is in third of the chain which methyl.
3.
4.
4,6-dimethyl-5-propyldecane
The longest carbon chain is ten so it's decane ,and fourth and sixth line have methyl, fifth line have propyl
5.
3,4-dimethyl-4-ethyl heptane
5 Practice Questions

Alkanes used in everyday life
Alkanes are used in many kind of products such as plastics, paints, drugs, cosmetics, detergents, insecticides.
methane - natural gas used for heating & cooking.
ethane – as a clean fuel and second main constituent of natural gas.
propane - used for heating & cooking.
butane - used for cooking, as in backpacking stoves.
heptane – used to dissolve the oil spot to show the previous presence of organic compounds on a stained paper.
Heptane is the longest carbon chain here, and third and fourth line have methyl also, fourth line have one ethyl too.
Structural isomers are isomers that have the same component atoms but arranged differently from each other.

Examples of structural isomers
Butane can be written by two ways.
1.
2.
pentane can be written by three ways.
3.
Hexane can be written by five ways.
3 Practice Questions
An alkane containing a ring of carbon-carbon bonds.
A compound consisting of an alkyl group and a halogen.
(Alkyl halides)
Q1. Show the structure and condensed of
A)
structural
condensed
Q2. which one has the longest alkane chain?
Explain
1. c
2. c-c-c-c-c-c-c
3. c-c-c
A)
* omit the hydrogen bonds
Q3. What is the molecular diagram of following figure?
A)
Explain
This structure have 5 carbons(C) and 12 hydrogens(H)
Q4. Use line structure to show
A)
Explain
Each dot is one carbon so seven line means eight carbons
Q5. Name the molecules of following figure
A) 5,6-diethyldecane
Explain
the longest carbon chain is ten, so it's decane,
and fifth and sixth line have ethyl so it's diethyl.
This 5 and 6 means where is the branch.
Example of cycloalkanes
Cyclopropane
( )
1.
Cyclobutane
2.
( )
Cyclopentane
3.
( )
3 Practice Questions
Q1. Name the following cycloalkanes.
A) 1-butyl-3-methyl-5-ethyl cycloheptane
Explain
The ring is made by seven carbons so it's cyclo heptane. First point have branch of butyl, third point have branch of methyl, and fifth point of branch have ethyl .
Q2. Draw the structure of 1,3-dimethylcyclobutane using line form.
A)
Explain
Butane have four carbons and cyclo means
connect them so draw a rectangle then draw a line in first and third point of the rectangle because two methyl is in first and third point of the rectangle.
Q3. Which one is correct naming of the following cycloalkanes?
a. 4-ethyl-2-isopropyl-1-methylcyclopentane
b. 4-ethyl-2-isopropyl-1-ethylcyclopentane
c. 4-ethyl-1-isopropyl-2-methylcyclopentane
d. 2-ethyl-3-isopropyl-2-ethylcyclopentane
e. 1-ethyl-3-isopropyl-4-methylcyclopentane

A)
4-ethyl-2-isopropyl-1-methylcyclopentane
Explain
This picture have pentagon so it's cyclopentane
and first carbon have branch of methyl, second carbon
have propyl, and fourth carbon have ethyl.
Cycloalkanes used in everyday life
Commonly used for cracking aromatics. Commercially, used to produce a variety of analgesics, sedatives, hypnotics, antitumor agents, prostaglandins, insecticides, and many other products.

Example of alkyl halides
4 Practice Questions
4 Practice Question
Alkyle Halides used in everyday life
The major use of ethyl chloride was to produce and anti – knock additive for gasoline.
Alkyl Halides used in air conditioners, and refrigerants.
Examples of Alkenes

An alkyne is a
hydrocarbon containing
a triple carbon-carbon bond
General Formula :
An alkene is a hydrocarbon containing a
double carbon carbon bond.
General Formula :
Number of carbons and number of hydrogens are same at alkene.
Propene
Cyclopentene
1-choloro-2-butene
Ethene
1.
One hydrocarbon is connected with one chlorine so it's called chloromethane(Methyl chloride).
2.
Four hydrocarbon(butane) have Iodide in second point of the chain so we call this 2-Iodo-2-methylbutane.
3.
For this one, two chlorides are connected with a hydrocarbon. It's called dichloromethane.
4.
Ethane have one fluorine beside of it, so we call this 1-fluoro ethane.
9 Practice questions
Q5. Name the following structure.
methyl chloride
A)
Explain
one hydrocarbon connect with chlorine so it's methyl chloride.
Q6. Which one is the correct naming?
A) Ethyl Bromide
1. Mthyl Bromide
2. Mthyl Bromine
3. Ethyl Boromide
4. Ethyl Bromine
5. Ethyl Bromide

1. There are three carbons-prop
2. There is a double bond- -ene
Exlain
two hydrocarbons(Ethyl) are connect with bromine but bromine is written by bromide like compound such as Calcium bromide.
1.There are 5 carbons: penta
2.There is a double bond: -ene
3.It forms a round shaped
1. There are two carbons: eth
2. There is a double bond: -ene
Q7. Which one is right group of the name of
1.There are 4 carbons: but
2.There is a double bond:-ene
3.Chlorine is attached at #1 carbon
4.The bond starts at #2 carbon
1. Pentyl Iodide / 1-Iodopentane
2. Butyl Iodide / 2-Iodobutane
3. Butyl Iodide / 1-Iodobutane
4. Propyl Iodide / 2-Iodopropane
5. Propyl Iodide / 1-Iodopropane

A) Propyl Iodide / 1-Iodopropane
5. Alcohol
Examples of Alcohols
Explain
At first, there's three carbon(prop-) and one iodide is connect with it. So we can call that Propyl Iodide or 1-Iodopropane.
Methanol
Q9. Draw the condensed form of 1,3 – dibromopropane.
A)
1.There is one carbon: meth
2.This bond is containing an OH group
Explain
Two bromines are sticked with carbons in first and third point of the chain so it's 1,3-dibromo and three carbons(propane) are there.
Q8. Draw dichloromethyl cyclooctane using structural form.
A)
Propanol
1. There are 3 carbons: prop
2. This bond is containing an OH group
Explain
Eight carbons(octane) are in there with two chlorine at branch of methyl.
1.There is 5 carbons: penta
2.The methyl is attached at #2 carbon
3.An OH group is attached at #4 carbon
2-methyl-4-pentanol
Examples of alkynes
an organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (-O H) is bound to a carbon atom.
number of carbon
IUPAC Rule
General Formula :
In the general formula, the n is the number of carbons number and 2n+2 is the number of hydrogen.

General Formula :
In this general formula, the n is the number of carbons number and 2n is the number of hydrogens.
Aldehyde: an organic compound containing a formyl group. This functional group, with the structure R-CHO
Ketone: an organic compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents.
Ether: a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group that an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups
Amines: organic compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amides: a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR'2 (R and R' refer to H or organic groups).
Carboxylic Acids: an organic acid characterized by the presence of at least one carboxyl group.
Real life uses of functional groups
Ether
: 1 Dietheyl ether- it used as an anesthetic for paotients
2Anisoles- use in perfumes and cosmetics
Ketones
: 1. acetone- it used in laboratories for rinsing glass ware
2 methadone- it used to cure addiction to opiates such as heroin and morphine
a mole cule of methadone
Aldehydes
: 1. Formaldehyde- it used in disinfectants and antiseptics
2 Glutamaldehyde- it used to kills bacteria, fungi and viruses so it commonly used for cleaner
Amines
: 1. Heterocyclic Amines- it found in cooked meat which causes a canacer.
2. Histamine- an amine that helps the brain cells going well and modulates sleep.
3. Aniline- an amine that used to create dyes, drugs and rubbers, whereas it has harmful effects on the enviornment and human death.
Amides
: 1. Polyacrylamide: used in paper industry also being used for fibers
2. Acrylamide: used to stablize soil and used in the cosemtic industry
Carboxylic Acid
: 1. Lactic acid- this substance is building up in human muscles during anaerobic excersise
2.Salicylic acid- it used in cleansers, liqyid foundation, moisturizers and anti-aging hydrating creams
Alcohol Used in real life
1.Glycerol: used as a moistering agent in cosmetics,foods and drugs.
2.Ethyl Alcohol: used in the intoxicating beverages
3.Fossil fuels: ethanol is considered a renewable fuel as it can be made from ewnewable sources such a sugar cane.
4.Perfumes: ethanol is the least toxic of the alcohos it is used in perfumes to stop the plant and animal extracts from going off.
Q.4 Name the following compound.

A.) 3-methyl-3-hexene
there are 6 carbons (hex)
the bond starts at#3 carbon (3)
#3 carbon contains a methyl ( )
Q.3 Name the following compounds
A.) 1,3,4 trimethyl-1-cyclobutene
there are 4 carbons (but)
the bond starts from #1 carbon (1)
#1,3,4 carbons contain the methyl
Alkanes have a straight chain with only single bonded carbons.
An atom or group of atoms, such as a carboxyl group, that replaces hydrogen in an organic compound and that defines the structure of a family of compounds and determines the properties of the family.
Are You Ready!!!!!
4 Practice Questions
- Alkynes used for metal welding and cutting and as an illuminant
Alkynes used in everyday life.
- The longer chain alkynes are used as intermediates in chemical reactions to produce more stable compounds.
there should be 8 carbons (oct)
triple bonds should be exist (-yne)
the bond should starts at the #1 carbon (1)
Do Review by yourself!!!!!!!!!
lol

Alkenes used in everyday life
- Alkenes are used for ripening of fruits, as a general anesthetic for making poisonous mustard gas
- it used as a catalyst that speeds up a chemical reaction without being altered or consumed in the process itself
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