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Career Crisis

Presenters: Andrea Cashman, Alana Melanson, Victoria Cop, Jill Peckham, and Nur Ozmizrak

Victoria Cop

on 10 March 2010

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Transcript of Career Crisis

Theory & Models Career Crisis Job Loss What is it? Assessment Interventions Case Study Final Thoughts Marginalized Employees Sexual Assualt Other Topics Covered in Our Paper Resources Items of Interest WHAT IS CAREER CRISIS TO YOU? THE CHANGING WORLD OF WORK Career counselling once called vocational guidance (early 1970’s)

Career role models have changed since

Today the range of people seeking help regarding their work is much wider, and the range of issues is greater

The nature of work has changed but the growth in counselling has also changed

(Hood, 2008) Level of Needs for Motivation to Work:

Physical Financial Survival
Desire for Job Security
Belongingness, Acceptance & Appreciation
Self-Acheivement & Increased Self-esteem

(Parrott & Parrott, 1995)
IMPORTANCE TYPES OF CAREER CRISIS Oppression/Glass Ceiling Effect CAREER CRISIS Bullying Midlife Career Crisis Work/Life Balance Retirement Career Transition Promotion/Demotion Trauma/Violence in The Workplace Job Loss Burnout Sexual Harassment Job loss - In 2008 unemployment rate 6.1% (Statistics Canada, 2009)
Types of Unemployment: Frictional, Cyclical and Structural Unemployment. (Parrott & Parrott, 1995).
Job Loss affects your health e.g. Higher rates of colds, headaches, increased blood pressure, cardiovascular deaths, suicide rates etc., (Parrott & Parrott, 1995).

Job Loss Incidence (Statistics Canada, 2009) Unemployment Rates in The Largest Census Metropolitan Areas, 2007 REFERENCES Everly Jr., G.S. Sherman, M.F., Stapelton, A., Barnett, D.J., Hiremath, G.S., Links, J.M.(2006)Workplace Crisis Intervention: A systematic review of effect sizes. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health. 21, ¾, 153-170.
 Hood, V.G., ( 2008). Work-related counselling – a psychodynamic approach. Psychodynamic Practice. 14 (4), 409-420.
Hutri, M., (1995). The role of work-related causal attributions in occupational crisis. The Journal of Psychology. 129 (2), 167.
Parrott, L. & Parrott, L. (1995). The Career Counselor. Word, Incorporated.
Sharf, R.S. (2006). Applying Career Development Theory to Counseling (4th Ed.). Thomson Wadsworth.
Statistics Canada, 2004
Statistics Canada, 2008 - Canadian Economic Observer: Historical Statistical Supplement 2008/2009
The Case of Robert Robert is a 50-year-old male living in London Ontario. He lives with his wife Judy in a two-story home. He has one son, Sebastian, who is busy with university full-time and doing an (unpaid) internship. His only daughter Sally passed away in a tragic car accident two years ago. He spends much of his free time at home with his wife who has a progressed form of multiple sclerosis and experiences long periods of immobility.
Lately, Robert has been busy preparing himself for a promotion he has been wanting and helping his son with wedding arrangements.

You have been Robert's counsellor on and off since his daughter was killed and are not surprised when he makes an appointment to see you.

In session, Robert tells you he has been laid off work this week.
Robert is a 50-year-old male living in London Ontario. He lives with his wife Judy in a two-story home. He has one son, Sebastian, who is busy with university full-time and doing an (unpaid) internship. His only daughter Sally passed away in a tragic car accident two years ago. He spends much of his free time at home with his wife who has a progressed form of multiple sclerosis and experiences long periods of immobility.
Lately, Robert has been busy preparing himself for a promotion he has been wanting for and helping his son with wedding arrangements.

You have been Robert's counsellor on and off since his daughter was killed and are not surprised when he makes an appointment to see you.

In session, Robert tells you he has been laid off work this week.
The Case of Robert a) What are the important factors to keep in mind in this scenario?

b) What in this crisis was involuntary anticipated? What was involuntary unanticipated?

c) What are your assessments for Robert?

d) What do you suggest as an intervention?
job loss career crisis Crisis hits Generation Y
Published On Thu May 01 2008
Liz Worth Special to the Star

Something wasn't right.
Looking at my life from the outside, you probably wouldn't have been able to tell. Everything seemed in place. Great apartment, busy social life, career on track. Except I felt as if I were drowning. For months I tried to figure out the problem, but I think deep down I knew all along it was this whole career thing.
Even though it was on track, it was making me fly off the rails, and it was a ride that I felt I had no control over.
Welcome to the Generation Y career crisis.
Growing up, the message being sent our way has always been, "You can be whatever you want to be." No one seemed to notice that they were telling it to 6-year-olds.
Kids who are told to "be all that they can be" grow up instilled with the importance of career aspirations, success and overachieving.
I believed it, and I went for it.
In journalism school, the idea of coming out with a diploma at the end wasn't enough I had to have as much real-work experience as possible, even if it meant working non-stop to build my portfolio. Two years after graduating, I was ready to make a transition in my writing career, and landed a PR position at a busy office.
But even though I had accomplished everything I set out to do, I constantly found myself thinking, so this is it?
Because while society was so busy encouraging me and my peers to excel, no one ever talked to us about working 10- to 12-hour days in competitive industries. No one ever talked to us about the sleepless nights that pressure can bring. Or about the emotional emptiness that takes over when you've spent all of your young adulthood planning for the future instead of living in the moment.
When everything is so contrived, you wake up one day and realize you have the job you wanted, but that job isn't everything. Not even close. By then you've sacrificed relationships and leisure time to such an extent that it feels as if you've denied yourself a key part of your personal development and history.
I had spent every moment planning where each move would get me next. Then, suddenly, a big question mark started to pop up over those long workdays. And the question, for me, was whether this was what I really wanted.
Like a viral outbreak, I noticed that same uncertainty was claiming other young professionals all around me.
Striking a balance between personal values and professional aspirations is something that Michael Stephenson recommends for individuals of all ages. A senior counsellor at Toronto's Catalyst Careers, Stephenson often sees dissatisfaction in younger workers who have embarked on careers that aren't right for them.
"What we're finding with Generation Y, there is an increased focus in the educational system on careers and the importance of them," Stephenson says. "But these individuals don't know what they're up against. They'll have an idea because mom or dad is an accountant, let's say, and they kind of think, `Well gee, why not.' And they go through all this work, effort, time to get an education and actually get a job in it and then it's, `Oh my God, I hate this.'"
So what's wrong with scaling back? Not everyone is cut out for a high-energy, high-pressure career. And even if someone is, it doesn't necessarily mean that they have to do it. Why not be happy in a low-stress job that allows for leisure time outside of work?
It seems like a logical move, but Stephenson says it's not always so easy for people to give themselves permission to do so until they realign their focus to work toward what matters to them, not what matches society's expectations.
"You can't change your values, but you can change your definition of those values. How do you define success? Is it having the fancy car or having a loving family, having time to enjoy life?"
For me, the path I was on wasn't in line with how I had envisioned my 20s unfolding. I had expected to work hard, but not so hard that it didn't feel as if I were living.
So when my employer had to close its doors this March, I felt something that a lot of people probably don't get when their source of income dries up: a sense of relief.
For the first time in a long time, I'm excited about the unknown. Better yet, I'm more ready for it than I have ever been.

Liz Worth is a 26-year-old freelance writer. Reach her through lizworth.com.
Career crisis hits overachieving Gen Y: Many want more time to live in the moment Resources Recession on Career Violence in The Workplace References IMPORTANCE People spend 1/3rd of their lives at work (Everly et al. 2006)

People change careers between 3-7 times in a life time (Sharf, 2006) whereas 2-3 times are radical career transitions (Statistics Canada, 2004)

Meaning of work: Provides financial independence; represents a certain position in life contribution to society; provides a sense of self-identity (Hood, 2008)

Few efforts have been made to define career crisis (Hutri, 1995)
Occupational crisis can be foreseen when a person experiences strong work related anxiety and wants to get out of the threatening situations by changing a job or a career but is unable to solve his or her problem (Hutri, 1995).
Two types of career crisis : Crises that are the result of unanticipated (sometimes involuntary) events and crises that are the result of anticipated events that do not happen (nonevents) (Parrott & Parrott, 1995).
A conflict at work is based partly on personal differences and partly on role conflicts (Hood, 2008)

CAREER CRISIS DEFINITION AND TYPES Presenters: Andrea Cashman, Victoria Cop, Alana Melanson, Nur Ozmizrak, & Jill Peckham
EAPs Career Crisis Intervention
Strategies and Techniques Overview
Universal Crisis Intervention Technique

Specific Job Loss Interventions

Transition Process Model -Strategies and Techniques
Universal Strategy
Strengthening a client's resilience
What does resilience look like?

an awareness
setbacks are a common part of life
an internal locus of control
strong problem solving skills
strong social connections
identify oneself as a survivor
ability to ask for help

Cherry, K. (2005)
Universal Strategy
Strengthening a client's resilience
How do we foster resilience?

formulate positive beliefs in your abilities
find a sense of purpose in your life
establish a strong social network
embrace change through flexibility and
maintain a hopeful or positive outlook

Cherry, K. (2005)
How Do We Foster Resilience?
...continued build self-nurturing skills
practice problem solving skills
establish manageable goals
take steps to solve problems
keep practicing and building upon your
existing skills and strengths

Cherry, K. (2005)
Specific Job Loss Interventions
Establish trust
Explore circumstances
Examine feelings
Assessment risk to
harm self or others
Explore distorted
cognitive thoughts
Develop reality-based
cognitive thoughts
Monitor for persistent
mood disorders
Inquire about social
support system
Teach assertiveness
Educate client on job
search techniques & resources
Monitor progress

Kolski T. D., Avriette M., & Jongsma A.E.
Specific Job Loss Interventions
Resources and Referral Options
Provincial & Federal Assistance programs
Consumer Credit
Vocational Rehabilitation
Career Counsellor or Outplacement
Employment Assisstance Programs (EAP)
Employment Law Attorney
Medical Doctor
Local Charities

Kolski T. D., Avriette M., & Jongsma A.E. (2001).
Transition Process Model Strategies and
Coping methods - 2 Levels

Level 1 basic psychological survival skills
(5 subcategories)

Level 2 self actualization

Brammer, L.M., & Abrego, P.J. (1981)
Transition Process Model Level 1
5 Subcategories
1. perceiving & responding to transitions
2. assessing, building, & utilizing external support
3. assessing, developing, & utilizing internal
support systems
4. reducing emotional & physical distress
5. planning & implementing change

Brammer, L.M., & Abrego, P.J. (1981)
Reactions to Job Loss People react differently for different reasons.
Common reactions include :

Reduced self-esteem
Lack of personal control
Lack of finances
Poor health
Problems in emotional functioning
Reduced commitment to seeking employment
Difficulty managing time
Less support from others
Decreased coping skills
Increased alcohol use
Reactions similar to bereavement or terminal illness

(Middlebrook & Clarke, 1991;Windgarner, Simonetti & Nikodym, 1984)
Decrease stress and return to normal life.
(Moos and Tsu 1976)

Consider the crisis model we began the course with (see drawing on board)
(Gazzola 2010)

More specifically....
Look at the 7 stage blank model that is provided.
Organize the cut-out ‘stages’ and place each in one of the 7 stages where you think it fits best.

Consider these questions in groups of 2 or 3:
Do you see any similarities in the models?
What considerations did you discuss when choosing different stages? Models Model of Adult Transitions
Hopson and Adams (1977) How would this model be helpful in
your practice? Sexual harassment
Involuntary, unanticipated and dramatic transition

Series of events over weeks or months
Sexual threats, sexual bribery, sexual jokes or comments, physical touching, force, coercion

Women of all ages and cultures
Rarely reported by males
50-66% report harassment (Laband and Lentz 1998)
Sexual Harassment Internal or external
4 Stages (Gutek and Koss 1993)
1. confusion and self-blame
2. Fear and anxiety
3. Depression and anger
4. Disillusionment
May or may not receive social or organizational support
May feel powerless
In some cases may causes PTSD and contribute to eating disorders
Responses to Sexual Harassment Career Crisis with Culturally Diverse Populations Minority Identity Development Model
Conformity- self depreciating
Dissonance – conflict and confusion
Resistance and immersion- self-appreciating
Introspection- acceptance of minority culture Client Assessment Super’s Life-Span Theory of Career Development
(Super, 1990)

Type of Transition
Schlossberg’s Categories of Career Transitions
(Schlossberg, 1984)

Louis’ Five Categories of Normative Transitions (Louis, 1980)

Internal and External Factors

Client’s Stage of Coping with Crisis
Hopson and Adam’s Model of Adult Transitions (Hopson and Adams, 1977)

Client Assessment Client assessment is essential before the intervention.

Job loss can be devastating and cause crisis, or be rewarding at various degrees, depending upon the individual’s situation and where they are at in life e.g.:
social status,
experiences and expectations,
as well as their gender, culture and environment.

N.B. It may happen once or multiple times during the life-span of an individual
Client Assessment through Super’s Life-Span Theory of Career Development According to Donald Super (1990) Career development takes place across one’s entire life-span, and is divided into 5 stages or “maxicycles” each with its own tasks.

It is possible to recycle back to earlier stages depending upon the life situation i.e. minicycle (go through all stages within a stage) and experience several stages at one time.

Client Assessment: Super’s Life-span Theory
...continued Transition is movement from one stage to another.

Not everyone progresses through these stages at fixed ages or in the same way.

Within each stage are tasks whose mastery allows people to function successfully within that stage while preparing them to move on to the next task.
Super’s Life Span Theory (Sharf, 2006) Super’s Life-Span Theory of Career Development RENEWAL (early 40s): unique to midlife, when individuals re-examine personal and career priorities, make changes based on this examination and make different plans about the future.

(Bejian and Salomone, 1995)
Growth (4-to-14) Exploration (15-to-25) Establishment (25-to-45) Maintenance (45-65) Disengagement (65 +) life role: studying, working, community service, home & family, leisure activities Why Super's Life-Span Theory? To conceptualize client situations. For this reason Life Role, Salience and Values are also pivotal to Super’s theory :
Your client’s situation will converge with their developmental stage and this will impact the degree of crisis they experience.
e.g., being fired/laid off when they are at the maintenance stage in their career may be more devastating than at earlier stages.

Ask yourself: Where is your client at in terms of Super’s developmental stages?
Knowing the following is helpful with the client’s assessment:

Which roles are important to a client?
Which Value expectations are met by the roles ?
How salient is a client’s work is to them, therefore
What is the impact of their Transition ?
Type of Career Transition Transition is movement from one stage to another.

The type of transition will be one factor impacting your client’s feelings and ability to cope (Sharf, 2006)

Voluntary vs Involuntary, Anticipated vs. Unanticipated

Can be experienced as positive change, provided it is anticipated and voluntary (Holmes, 1994) .
Expectancy Degree of Control: Readiness Anticipated Unanticipated Involuntary Voluntary POSITIVE
NEW ASSIGNMENT Client Assessment- Internal Factors
Career Transitions Inventory:
(Heppner, 1998) Readiness: How motivated is your client to make a career transition?

Confidence: What is your client's sense of self efficacy in making this transition?

Control: Degree to which your client feels they can make their own decisions?

Perceived Support: How much support from family and friends does your client feel in making this transition?

Decision Independence: Was your client’s decision based on their own needs or the wishes of others?

Client Assessment Internal Factors External Factors/Context Balance Fast Paced
Global Economy

Resilience Career Life Situation,Gender,
Transition Support System,

Skills Resistance in Job Market
to Older Workers (Bejjian&Salomone, 1995), (Betz, 2002), (Carver, 1998), (Doerr, 1995), (Ebberweign, 2004), (O’Conner & Wolfe 1991), (Sharf, 2006), (Talley, 1981), (Tugade, 2004)
Balance-Whole Person Wheel (Doerr, 1995) Emotional Mental Spiritual Social Will Physical Whether or not there exists a balance in all 6 areas of one’s life will impact any transition.
How is your client currently feeling physically, emotionally, spiritually? Are they experiencing mental health issues? How determined are they? What is the quality of their support system? Client Assessment- Internal Factors
Resilience - predicated on self-understanding, respect for self & others and lifelong learning. Self-Aware

Proactive Resilience Adaptable


Ability to bounce back from
adversity Client Assessment- Internal Factors
Skills What are your client’s skills?

Do these skills require updating?

Are these skills transferable?

Skills transfer and the acquisition of new skills is an important part of any transition ….is your client able and willing to make the leap?
Client Assessment- External Factors
Fast Paced Global Economy, Support System, Gender, & Multiculture Transitions occur in the context of the development of society.
Is your client’s transition involuntary due to automation, downsizing or company bankruptcy?
Do they have adequate and realistic information regarding occupations and job prospects?

Does your client have a support system in place consisting of friends and family?

They may also be faced with discrimination and cultural issues.
Women may work part time or take breaks due to home-making which may later impact career advancement.
In most cultures, Men still be impacted by dominant beliefs about being the primary bread winner and provider (even though more involved than ever before with family chores).
Rule of Thumb in Assessment: What stage is your client at in terms of coping with their transition?
Recognize Client’s feelings depending upon their situation, any unfinished business and personal make up including:
Denial, Anger, Guilt, Sadness, Anxiety/Fear, Depression, Acceptance, Elation

Is your client where they want to be in terms of their developmental career stage and tasks?

Or are they feeling undervalued, unimpressed and/or completely overwhelmed?

Career Transitions Scale
(Heppner, Moulton & Johnson 1994) To assess in 5 areas how well clients have made Career Transitions

1. Readiness

2. Confidence

3. Control

4. Perceived support

5. Decision independence (Heppner 1998)
Career Transitions 3 Types of Career Transitions:

1. Normative

2. Nonnormative

3. Persistent

(Schlossberg, 1998)

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