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Rachel Dunbar

on 22 February 2013

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Transcript of Genetics

Genetics Vocabulary What is in your Genetics? Gregor Mendel Trait Heredity Mendel's experiments This is how he did it.... Heredity Hybrid
Traits Genetics
DNA Transfer RNA
Messenger RNA Dominant alleles
Recessive alleles Codominance
Phenotype Genotype
Homozygous Heterozygous He was a nineteenth century priest that did experiments in a garden that he tended.

Grew pea plants in his garden and he wondered why plants had different characteristics. Some plants were tall some short others had different colored flowers, and the peas that were produced also varied. put def here put def here He would take pollen from one specific male plant and fertilize the egg of a specific female plant to see what the offspring look like, this is called crossing plants.
Dominant & Recessive Alleles

Mendel came to the conclusion that there are individual factors or set of genetic information that controls the traits that are inherited in his peas. Alleles- We use the word genes for genetic factors
that control traits, alleles are different types of genes.
Ex. Pea plants have genes that have two alleles on it, one for tall and one with short or two tall/two short. Alleles can either be dominant or recessive. Recessive alleles are hidden or masked by dominant alleles. Genes and Alleles Hybrid (Not the car) Write def here Symbols Scientists use letters to represent the alleles on genes, capital letters for dominant alleles and lowercase letters for recessive alleles.
Ex. TT, Tt or tt As you get ready for the big game on superbowl Sunday there is still one decision to be made, who kicks and who receives in the (put your football team’s name here)
What are the chances your team will win the coin toss or the other team? Probability & Heredity There is two ways this could turn out, heads or tails. The heads and tails side of the coin have an equal opportunity to make their presents. Mathematically you could say heads one in two chances and tails the same and fractionally ½ and 50%. Probability & Heredity (cont) Each time he made a hybrid cross he found similar results, ¾ of the plant showed hybrid characteristics.
The principals of mathematics could be used in the results of the genetic crosses. Back to Mendel A tool used to see how probability could be applied for determining the out come of genetics crosses.
Use the Punnett Square to help calculate the probability of the offspring of a cross. Punnett Squares Phenotype- the physical appearance or visible traits.

Genotype- the genetic makeup or
allele combinations.

Homozygous- two identical alleles for a trait.

Heterozygous- two different alleles for a trait.

Codominance- alleles are neither dominant or recessive, so both alleles are expressed. DNA contains thousands of genes.
Where in the cell are DNA and chromosomes located?
All living organisms, Plant and Animals, have DNA that maps for all their traits. DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid Recall that chromosomes are composed mostly of DNA.
A DNA molecule is made up of four different nitrogen bases—adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C).
These bases form the rungs of the DNA “ladder.” Genes and DNA The bases on one side of the ladder pair with the bases on the other side. Adenine (A) only pairs with thymine (T), while guanine (G) only pairs with cytosine (C). This pairing pattern is the key to understanding how DNA replication occurs. DNA DNA replication begins when the two sides of the DNA molecule unwind and separate, somewhat like a zipper unzipping. The molecule separates between the paired nitrogen bases,

A-T, G-C. During DNA replication, guanine(G) pairs with _______ and A pairs with ______ ? The Replication Process The production of proteins is called protein synthesis. During protein synthesis, the cell uses information from a gene on a chromosome to produce a specific protein. Protein synthesis takes place on the ribosomes in the cytoplasm of a cell. As you know, the cytoplasm is outside the nucleus. The chromosomes, however, are found inside the nucleus. How Cells Make Proteins mRNA copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm.
tRNA in the cytoplasm carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain. Protein Synthesis messengerRNA and transferRNA Messenger RNA Transfer RNA RNA is the messenger that gets information
from the nucleus out into the cytoplasm to the ribosomes. The other type of RNA transfers amino acids to ribosomes for growing proteins. Transfer RNA and Messenger RNA To copy or translate the code DNA needs to
“unzip” so the RNA can squeeze in and make a copy to take to the ribosomes. In the ribosomes the proteins are built. The transfer RNA attaches to the strand and “reads” the code and starts building a new strand. Translation of the code A mutation can occur when one of the bases is replaced by another base. This will cause a change in the cell’s hereditary material. The organisms traits or phenotype may be different from it original. Instead of the base A, for example, the DNA molecule might have the base G. Such a mistake is one type of mutation that can occur in a cell’s hereditary material. Mutation Mutations can cause an organism to be
changed sometimes the change is good, others can cause harm to the organism, and some no effects.
An example of a harmful mutation would be when an organism’s fur color in the wild has changed to make it more visible to it predator.  

An example of a beneficial mutation would help the organism to be more successful in its chances of survival. Bacteria would be a good example of a positive mutation. Effects of Mutations write def here
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