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Basic Immunology: 12

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Ronnie Friedman

on 23 January 2017

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Transcript of Basic Immunology: 12

The Immune System:
Structure and function
A course in Basic Immunology
by
Ronnie Friedman, PhD
Professor of Immunology
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Israel
part 11
B lymphocyte activation and function
Activation of B lymphocytes
Antibody classes
biology of antibody responses
the use of
mono-specific

antibodies
for research and therapeutic treatment
actvation and differentiation of naive b cells
Main points:
Structure of LN
Entry of antigen
Initial interaction with B cells
Concomitant interaction with T cells
main differentiation events:
b cells to plasma cells
b cells to memory cells
heavy chain switch
affinity maturation
temporal behavior of b cell and antibody response
Fab:
LV-HV combination determines specificity
LC-HC1 combination give support
Fc:
A combination of HC constant domains that determine functionality
Light chain distribution does not affect antibody functionality
Each heavy chain class determines a function, thus each type defines a unique antibody or isotype
thus far...
a clonotype can be assigned to all antibody classes
Note:
number of C-domains in each class
sugar residues
some antibody classes are secreted as monomers, and some as polymers
some antibody classes have functionally distinct sub-classes
biological properties of antibodies
the ways antibodies act to remove pathogens
opsonization may lead to the formation of"
immune complexes
"
Complexes between large particles and antibodies "
agglutinate
"
Complexes between small particles and antibodies "
precipitate
"
lets take another look at this....
Note: 1) The extraordinary important role of the "
Fc Receptor
" (FcR) (roles 2 & 4)
2) The diversity of Fc recognition and its consequences (roles 2-4)
neutralization accomplishes:
opsonizaton leads to Fc ligation by fcr
opsonization leads to complement activation
immunology of the (primate) new born: maternal protection
summary: antibodies in action
antibodies in therapeutics???
the unique role of iga in mucosal surfaces
the objective:
to isolate
viable
single antibody producing cells (clones) and to keep them producing
monoclonal antibodies
in perpetuity
the technology
Normal cells cannot be cloned - they die
They need to be immortalized
Direct immortalization fails
Indirect immortalization with mutant myeloma cells works
uses - research
uses - clinical treatment
the receptors
the functions:
amplifying phagocytosis and macrophage function
the functions:
De-granulation
the functions:
ADCC
(antibody-dependent-cellular -cytotoxicity)
The protective role of iga
removing immune-complexes
elisa
affinity chromatography
cell studies
immunocytochemistry
Antibody + antigen coated antigen
coated antigen
Lattice formation
Opsonized
lattice complex Agglutinate

precipitate

agglutinate
A large complex, usually with large antigen particles, that forms a "clump"
example: hemagglutination
precipitate (precipitation)
Antibody binds antigen to form a complex. When zone of equivalence is attained the complex separates from solution and precipitates
Zone of equivalence: concentration equilibrium that causes maximum precipitate
antigens that have been coated are removed by one or more:
phagocytosis
lysis (complement and/or ADCC)
washout
Precipitation can be demonstrated in semi-solid medium (agar):
Full transcript