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Racism Stacking NFL

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Tristan Cunningham

on 20 April 2011

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Transcript of Racism Stacking NFL

Stacking and Racism in Football
by: Tristan Cunningham Racism
Racism as defined in the book “The Sociology of Sports: An Introduction” by Tim Delany and Tim Madigan is “Any attitude, belief, behavior, or social arrangement that has the intent or the ultimate effect, of favoring one group over another.
Racism in Sports Today Racism in sports today is very covert.
On the playing field however racism is displayed through the practice of stacking. Stacking
Stacking as defined by Benjamin Margolis and Jane Allyn Piliavin in their article “”Stacking” in Major League Baseball: A Multivariate Analysis” is the “postion segregation by race or ethnicity in team sports.”
Brett and Norris Johnson explained stacking as “minorities are excluded from postions with the greatest opportunity for determining the outcome of the competition.” in their article “Stacking and “Stoppers”: A Test of the Outcome Control Hypothesis. Stacking
Stacking as defined by Benjamin Margolis and Jane Allyn Piliavin in their article “”Stacking” in Major League Baseball: A Multivariate Analysis” is the “postion segregation by race or ethnicity in team sports.”
Brett and Norris Johnson explained stacking as “minorities are excluded from postions with the greatest opportunity for determining the outcome of the competition.” in their article “Stacking and “Stoppers”: A Test of the Outcome Control Hypothesis.
Stacking Applied The idea of stacking is reflected in all sports but a good example is in woman’s college volleyball.
The setter position is considered to be the most important position on the court.
Stanley Eitzen and David Furst found in their study “Racial Bias in Women’s Collegiate Volleyball” that while 6% of women's college volleyball players are African American less than .01% play the setter position. Stacking in Football
The article “Professional Football Scouts: An Investigation of Racial Stacking” by J.R. Woodard, it was found that “African American players are more likely to be described in physical terms (rather than mental terms) than are White players in the same positions.”
It is also stated that "Black postions are not considered leadership and thinking. A playing career at a non-leadership position is, therefore, assumed to be inadequate training for a career in coaching providing at least one factor that keeps blacks out of this occupation." in Eitzen andSanford's article "The Segregation of Blacks by Playing Position in Football: Accident or Design?" How this effects the Players
In the article “Understanding Racism through the Eyes of African American Male Student Athletes” by John Singer it is stated “These males felt that racism directly manifested itself in terms of African Americans (1) being denied access to leadership and major decision making opportunities in college and professional sport,”. Thinking Positions
“Thinking” or “central positions defined by Billy Hawkins in “Is Stacking Dead? A Case Study of the Stacking Hypothesis at a Southeastern Conference (SEC) Program” are the “quarterback, offensive and defensive linemen, punters/kicker.” It is also stated in this article that “Of all the central positions, the quarterback position is considered the most critical. It is the focal point of the offense. It requires characteristics Blacks where believed not to possess: leadership qualities, social interaction skills, intellectual abilities, decision making skills, etc.”.
A True Life Example A great example of this is the case of Warren Moon who went undrafted in 1978 because of his refusal to play a different position. He stated when asked about when he first felt that he was being viewed as a black quarterback and more than just a quarterback.
“I think in high school. My sophomore coach, Mel Klien, really had a disdain for African American quarterbacks. It was so clear and obvious, my ability over the guy he was starting.” A great example of this is the case of Warren Moon who went undrafted in 1978 because of his refusal to play a different position. He stated when asked about when he first felt that he was being viewed as a black quarterback and more than just a quarterback.
“I think in high school. My sophomore coach, Mel Klien, really had a disdain for African American quarterbacks. It was so clear and obvious, my ability over the guy he was starting.”
“The study of sports in American history is the story of great American themes-racism, sexism, responses to war, demagoguery, sudden economic success, immigration, urban growth, community life, advances in transportation, media hype, and so forth.”
-Murry Nelson
What Can We Do??? Unfortuanately there is no way that a policy can be enacted to defer the stacking of minority players into "non-thinking postions on the football field.
But hopefully with the continued success of African-American players in these thinking positions in the NFL coaches at lower levels will be swayed to explore all their options in their choices for these critical postions which will hopefully allow for more minorities the ability to grow into coaching and front office jobs within sports. Is This Still the Case? NFL War Room Questions?
Works Citied
Woodward, J.R. (2004). Professional football scouts: an investigation of racial stacking. Sociology of Sport Journal, 21(4),.

Hawkins, B. (2002). Is stacking dead? a case study of the stacking hypothesis at a southeastern conference (sec) football program. International Sports Journal, 6(2),.

Johnson, B.D., & Johnson, N.R. (1995). Stacking and "stoppers": a test of the outcome control hypothesis. Sociology of Sport Journal, 12(1),.

Margolis, B., & Piliavin, J.A. (1999). "stacking" in major league baseball: a multivariate analysis.Sociology of Sport Journal, 16(1),.

Eitzen, S.D., & Sanford, D.C. (1975). The segregation of blacks by playing position in football: accident or design?. Social Science Quarterly (Southwestern Social Sciences Association), 55(4),.

Eitzen, S.D., & Furst, D. (1989). Racial bias in women's collegiate volleyball. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 13(1),.

Singer, J.N. (2005). Understanding racism through the eyes of african american male student-athletes.Race, Ethnicity & Education, 8(4),.

Murry, N. (2005). Sports history as a vehicle for social and cultural understanding in american history. Social Studies, 96(3),.

Cambell, C. (2009). Quarterback warren moon on michael vick, racism, and why he wouldn't trade his five grey cups for one super bowl win. Maclean's,122(28),.

Delaney, T., & Madigan, T. (2009). The sociology of sports an introduction. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Comapny, Inc.,.
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