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College Now Review
Transcript of College Now Review
At the start of the 1950's -17 million T.V. sets in homes (1952).
By the end of the decade, there were 559 stations, and nearly 90% of US households owned a television.
In the 1950s more television sets were sold in the US (70 million) than there were children born (40.5 million).
Formats carried over from radio networks.
television genres included variety shows, situation comedies, dramas, soap operas and quiz shows.
Two new formats appeared.
feature films and talk shows.
Talk shows were instrumental introducing radio personalities.
Television news and documentary remade broadcast journalism as a powerful force in its own right.
Broadcasters like Edward R. Murrow, David Brinkley, Chet Huntley
Popular Early TV Shows
I Love Lucy
Leave It To Beaver
Father Knows Best
I Love Lucy
The Quiz Show Scandal
The Business Of Television
How do Networks make money?
Top rated shows
A.C. Nielsen company
Nielsen ratings, an audience measurement system that measures television, radio and newspaper audiences in their respective media markets.
In 1950 they began attaching recording devices to a statistical sample of about 1200 consumer television sets in the U.S
A look at the Nielsen ratings
How much are commercials? It all depends on the popularity of the show.
Higher rated audience, the more expensive the rates for the commercial.
The Super Bowl ($2.5 – $2.8 million)
The Academy Awards ($1.8 million)
American Idol ($467,000 for a 30 second slot)
Glee ($272,000 for a 30 second slot)
Sunday Night Football ($415,000)
Hottest shows to advertise?
Business of Television
The business of television is dominated by a few centralized production, distribution, and decision making organizations.
These networks link affiliates for the purpose of delivering and selling viewers to advertisers.
ABC -224 affiliates
NBC-212 and CBS 200.
Fox has 172. Local affiliates carry network programs
How do affiliates work?
Networks make direct payments to affiliates for airing their programs. For example, CBS pays compensation to its affiliates for airing CSI.
Networks allow affiliates to insert locally sold commercials in a certain number of specified spots in their programs. The affiliates are allowed to keep all the money they make from these local spots.
How else do television shows make money?
Syndication -- the sale of the right to broadcast radio shows and television shows by multiple radio stations and television stations without going through a broadcast network.
Syndication works both in the United States and abroad
Super Bowl Commercials
Understanding Radio and its future
So how do radio waves work
"Radio waves" transmit music, conversations, pictures and data invisibly through the air, often over millions of miles
radio waves are invisible and completely undetectable to humans,
Use radio waves through cell phones, baby monitors or cordless phones.
Frequency Modulation -- The signal is wider, more frequent and therefore you are able to broadcast in stereo and adding better fidelity to the original sound.
Amplitude modulation – the waves are narrower. Sound isn’t as good.
More talk shows are on AM than FM
After radio’s golden age, radio became more specialized.
Enter the disc jockey playing records.
highly specialized specific audience of particular to certain advertisers could be attracted with specific types of music and format
Hence format radio was born.
There are 90 different musical formats recognized
Movement from the traditional to the Internet, downloading and satellite radio
XM and Sirius radio.
More than 100 stations and formats vary.
Paid service with only a few stations providing commercials.
Not regulated by the Federal Communications Commission,
the idea of delivering radio directly to the individual listeners over the internet.
Positives are that they are mostly commercial free.
Not regulated by the FCC
Music from all over the world.
Plethora of radio formats.
Apple’s I-Pod revolution.
Downloading music has never been easier.
Unlimited access to music.
Don’t forget other MP3 players too.
The Great Stone Face
Stoic, deadpan expression
American comic actor, filmmaker producer and writer
Used physical comedy called slapstick
Buster Keaton (1895-1966)
American Film Institute ranked him the 21st greatest male actor in the history of film.
Entertainment Weekly voted Keaton the 7th greatest director of all time
Buster Keaton's Steamboat Bill
In 2002, ranked as the 15th best film in history
Released in 1926 to mixed reviews and was a box office disaster
Directed, starred and written by Buster Keaton.
The Early Days of Movies
Earliest Days of filmmaking
Thomas Alva Edison (1847 – 1931)
19th century and early 20th century American inventor who lived in West Orange, NJ
Holds the world record for inventing 1,093 items including the phonograph and film projectors
Did not invent the light bulb but an incandescent light bulb for the home
Camera used to create film for the kinetoscope
Tiny photographic images were affixed in sequence to a cylinder, with the idea that when the cylinder was rotated the illusion of motion would be reproduced via reflected light
The Black Maria
America’s First motion picture studio in 1893
Edison experimented and produced short films there
Located in West Orange N.J.
One of the first movies shot was “The Sneeze” in January 1894 sent to the Library of Congress
Movies for public in April 1894
Advancing the Medium
Auguste and Louis Lumiere
French brothers experimenting with film in Lyon, France (1895)
Patented a number of film perforations leading up to the motion picture camera
Invented the cinematographe and advances film through the camera and projector
Lumiere Brothers (1903)
The Great Train Robbery (1903)
Considered the first
movie with a plot
George Melies A Trip to the Moon
Fatty Arbuckle in Coney Island
the use of intertitles, body language and music is used.
Rudolf Valentino in The Sheik
The Jazz Singer
The first talkie (1927)
Different Types of Newspapers
Earliest newspapers appeared in Germany, Italy and the Netherlands (early 17th century)
First English language Daily was The Daily Courant (1702-35)
First multi-page U.S. newspaper Benjamin Harris – Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick. (1690)
What are some NYC newspapers?
New York Newsday
New York Post
New York Times
Compact page and size
Big banner headlines
Largest of the various newspaper formats and characterized by a long vertical format.
What is a magazine?
Printed collection of texts (essays, articles, stories, poems) Often illustrated and produced regularly
Modern magazines have roots in early printed pamphlets, broadsides and almanacs
1663 – German Erbauliche Monaths-Unterredungen
The Tatler and The Spectator – influential periodical in mid-1700s.
History of Magazines, Newspapers and Wire Services
What is a newspaper?
Newspapers are a printed publication of folded unstapled sheets and contain news, feature articles, advertisements and correspondence
New York Daily News
Known for its photos
Organizations that gathers, writes and distributes news to newspapers, periodicals,
radio and television broadcasters, government agencies and other users.
It does not publish news itself but supplies news to subscribers, who, by sharing costs could not otherwise afford
EARLY DAYS OF MASS MEDIA
Word Of Mouth
Voice to voice communication
Dates back to early days of man
Ancient language of Sumer(4th -3rd B.C.)
Spoken in southern Mesopotamia
Oldest writing material
Dates back 5,000 years
sheets are formed by laying thin strips of plant stalk in horizontal and vertical (crosswise) layers
Made from parts of a rice plant
Made in Vietnam, China, Korea and Japan
Used for writing and art work
Inventor of the Printing Press also known as the movable type press.
Considered the most important invention of the first millennium.
A German blacksmith who introduced the modern form of publishing
First book published was the bible in Latin.
Why is Gutenberg so important?
Brought to the masses:
people can now read
The History of Radio and
The Golden Age of Radio
Early Radio Experimentation
Guglielmo Marconi – “Father of the radio”
1896 – able to send and receive telegraph code for two miles.
1899 – successfully transmitted across the English Channel
1901 – across the Atlantic ocean
1906 – Christmas Eve broadcast. First public broadcast.
American Lee DeForest thought of it as a money making venture (1907)
However delayed because of patent fights and lawsuits
After WWI, it was very popular.
1920 – KDKA from Pittsburgh, Pa. made the first commercial radio broadcast.
Announced the results of the presidential election.
1922 there were nearly 1 million radios in American homes.
First radio commercial was Aug. 22, 1922 NY station WEAF accepted the first radio commercial.
A 10 minute spot for Long Island brownstone apartments. The cost for the ad $50.
The sale of advertising led to establishment of national radio networks called affiliates.
RCA, NBC (1926) , CBS (1927) . The fourth network was Mutual in 1934 and they struggled
Most networks started with radio in the 1920s
National Broadcasting Company (1926)
Columbia Broadcasting Company (1927)
American Broadcasting Company (1943)
Golden Age of Radio
1929- through WWII
New shows: The Jack Benny Show, Little Orphan Annie, The Guiding Light, Truth or Consequence
Radios were very popular
There are two radios for every person in the US. The industry as a whole sold more than 16.6 billion a year of ad time.
Radio Changes But Survives
Popularity of Television at the start of the 1950s
Popular radio shows and personalities now move to television
But it is the disc jockey or DJ that continues to make radio a powerful medium.
Alan Freed a disc jockey coined the term Rock n’ Roll