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College Now Review
Transcript of College Now Review
By the end of the decade, there were 559 stations, and nearly 90% of US households owned a television. In the 1950s more television sets were sold in the US (70 million) than there were children born (40.5 million). Formats carried over from radio networks.
television genres included variety shows, situation comedies, dramas, soap operas and quiz shows. Two new formats appeared.
feature films and talk shows.
Talk shows were instrumental introducing radio personalities. Television news and documentary remade broadcast journalism as a powerful force in its own right.
Broadcasters like Edward R. Murrow, David Brinkley, Chet Huntley Popular Early TV Shows I Love Lucy The$64,000 Question Leave It To Beaver Father Knows Best I Love Lucy The Quiz Show Scandal The Business Of Television How do Networks make money? Top rated shows
A.C. Nielsen company
Nielsen ratings, an audience measurement system that measures television, radio and newspaper audiences in their respective media markets.
In 1950 they began attaching recording devices to a statistical sample of about 1200 consumer television sets in the U.S A look at the Nielsen ratings Commercial rates How much are commercials? It all depends on the popularity of the show.
Higher rated audience, the more expensive the rates for the commercial. The Super Bowl ($2.5 – $2.8 million)
The Academy Awards ($1.8 million)
American Idol ($467,000 for a 30 second slot)
Glee ($272,000 for a 30 second slot)
Sunday Night Football ($415,000) Hottest shows to advertise? Business of Television The business of television is dominated by a few centralized production, distribution, and decision making organizations. These networks link affiliates for the purpose of delivering and selling viewers to advertisers.
ABC -224 affiliates
NBC-212 and CBS 200.
Fox has 172. Local affiliates carry network programs How do affiliates work? Networks make direct payments to affiliates for airing their programs. For example, CBS pays compensation to its affiliates for airing CSI.
Networks allow affiliates to insert locally sold commercials in a certain number of specified spots in their programs. The affiliates are allowed to keep all the money they make from these local spots. How else do television shows make money? Syndication -- the sale of the right to broadcast radio shows and television shows by multiple radio stations and television stations without going through a broadcast network.
Syndication works both in the United States and abroad Super Bowl Commercials Understanding Radio and its future So how do radio waves work "Radio waves" transmit music, conversations, pictures and data invisibly through the air, often over millions of miles
radio waves are invisible and completely undetectable to humans,
Use radio waves through cell phones, baby monitors or cordless phones. Radio Waves Frequency Modulation -- The signal is wider, more frequent and therefore you are able to broadcast in stereo and adding better fidelity to the original sound. Amplitude modulation – the waves are narrower. Sound isn’t as good.
More talk shows are on AM than FM Musical Formats After radio’s golden age, radio became more specialized.
Enter the disc jockey playing records.
highly specialized specific audience of particular to certain advertisers could be attracted with specific types of music and format
Hence format radio was born. There are 90 different musical formats recognized Radio’s future Movement from the traditional to the Internet, downloading and satellite radio XM and Sirius radio.
More than 100 stations and formats vary.
Paid service with only a few stations providing commercials.
Not regulated by the Federal Communications Commission, the idea of delivering radio directly to the individual listeners over the internet.
Positives are that they are mostly commercial free.
Not regulated by the FCC
Music from all over the world.
Plethora of radio formats. Internet Radio Apple’s I-Pod revolution.
Downloading music has never been easier.
Unlimited access to music.
Don’t forget other MP3 players too. Downloading music The Great Stone Face Stoic, deadpan expression American comic actor, filmmaker producer and writer Used physical comedy called slapstick Buster Keaton (1895-1966) American Film Institute ranked him the 21st greatest male actor in the history of film. Entertainment Weekly voted Keaton the 7th greatest director of all time Buster Keaton's Steamboat Bill The General In 2002, ranked as the 15th best film in history Released in 1926 to mixed reviews and was a box office disaster Directed, starred and written by Buster Keaton. The General The Early Days of Movies Earliest Days of filmmaking Thomas Alva Edison (1847 – 1931) 19th century and early 20th century American inventor who lived in West Orange, NJ Holds the world record for inventing 1,093 items including the phonograph and film projectors Did not invent the light bulb but an incandescent light bulb for the home Kinetograph Camera used to create film for the kinetoscope Kinetoscope Tiny photographic images were affixed in sequence to a cylinder, with the idea that when the cylinder was rotated the illusion of motion would be reproduced via reflected light The Black Maria America’s First motion picture studio in 1893 Edison experimented and produced short films there Located in West Orange N.J. One of the first movies shot was “The Sneeze” in January 1894 sent to the Library of Congress Movies for public in April 1894 Advancing the Medium Auguste and Louis Lumiere French brothers experimenting with film in Lyon, France (1895) Patented a number of film perforations leading up to the motion picture camera Invented the cinematographe and advances film through the camera and projector Lumiere Brothers (1903) Early Films The Great Train Robbery (1903) Considered the first
movie with a plot George Melies A Trip to the Moon Fatty Arbuckle in Coney Island the use of intertitles, body language and music is used. Rudolf Valentino in The Sheik The Jazz Singer The first talkie (1927) Different Types of Newspapers Emotional pictures Earliest newspapers appeared in Germany, Italy and the Netherlands (early 17th century) Newspaper History First English language Daily was The Daily Courant (1702-35) First multi-page U.S. newspaper Benjamin Harris – Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick. (1690) Influential Magazines What are some NYC newspapers? New York Newsday New York Post New York Times Tabloid newspapers Compact page and size Big banner headlines Broadsheet Newspaper Largest of the various newspaper formats and characterized by a long vertical format. What is a magazine? Printed collection of texts (essays, articles, stories, poems) Often illustrated and produced regularly Modern magazines have roots in early printed pamphlets, broadsides and almanacs 1663 – German Erbauliche Monaths-Unterredungen The Tatler and The Spectator – influential periodical in mid-1700s. History of Magazines, Newspapers and Wire Services What is a newspaper? Newspapers are a printed publication of folded unstapled sheets and contain news, feature articles, advertisements and correspondence New York Daily News Then Now Life Magazine Known for its photos Wire Services Organizations that gathers, writes and distributes news to newspapers, periodicals,
radio and television broadcasters, government agencies and other users. It does not publish news itself but supplies news to subscribers, who, by sharing costs could not otherwise afford EARLY DAYS OF MASS MEDIA Word Of Mouth Voice to voice communication
Dates back to early days of man
Morning announcements Early Print Sumerians
Ancient language of Sumer(4th -3rd B.C.)
Spoken in southern Mesopotamia
Modern Iraq Ancient Egypt Papyrus paper
Oldest writing material
Dates back 5,000 years
sheets are formed by laying thin strips of plant stalk in horizontal and vertical (crosswise) layers Asia Rice Paper
Made from parts of a rice plant
Made in Vietnam, China, Korea and Japan
Used for writing and art work Johannes Gutenberg(1398-1468) Inventor of the Printing Press also known as the movable type press.
Considered the most important invention of the first millennium.
A German blacksmith who introduced the modern form of publishing
First book published was the bible in Latin. Why is Gutenberg so important? Brought to the masses: literacy people can now read The History of Radio and
The Golden Age of Radio Early Radio Experimentation Guglielmo Marconi – “Father of the radio”
1896 – able to send and receive telegraph code for two miles.
1899 – successfully transmitted across the English Channel
1901 – across the Atlantic ocean Early Broadcasts 1906 – Christmas Eve broadcast. First public broadcast.
American Lee DeForest thought of it as a money making venture (1907)
However delayed because of patent fights and lawsuits
After WWI, it was very popular. 1920 – KDKA from Pittsburgh, Pa. made the first commercial radio broadcast.
Announced the results of the presidential election.
1922 there were nearly 1 million radios in American homes. First radio commercial was Aug. 22, 1922 NY station WEAF accepted the first radio commercial.
A 10 minute spot for Long Island brownstone apartments. The cost for the ad $50. The sale of advertising led to establishment of national radio networks called affiliates.
RCA, NBC (1926) , CBS (1927) . The fourth network was Mutual in 1934 and they struggled Most networks started with radio in the 1920s National Broadcasting Company (1926) RCA (1926) Columbia Broadcasting Company (1927) Mutual (1934) American Broadcasting Company (1943) Golden Age of Radio 1929- through WWII New shows: The Jack Benny Show, Little Orphan Annie, The Guiding Light, Truth or Consequence Radios were very popular There are two radios for every person in the US. The industry as a whole sold more than 16.6 billion a year of ad time. Radio Changes But Survives Popularity of Television at the start of the 1950s Popular radio shows and personalities now move to television But it is the disc jockey or DJ that continues to make radio a powerful medium. Alan Freed a disc jockey coined the term Rock n’ Roll ? The Honeymooners