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European Exploration of the Americas 1492-1700
Transcript of European Exploration of the Americas 1492-1700
European Competition in North America
Terms and Names:
Henry Hudson, John Cabot, Giovanni da Verrazzano, Jacques Cartier, Samuel de Champlian, New France.
The Spanish and Native Americans
Terms and Names:
Viceroyalty, Encomienda, Hacienda, Mission, Pope, Plantation, Bartolome de las Casas, Columbian Exchange.
All Summed Up
Throughout the years slaves became more and more in the Americas and more people from Europe came to fine gold, silver, and grow cash crops. The Americas was first found while trying to find a route to Asia for trade. Slavery grew widely and fast throughout the Americas in this time period. Although the Spanish ruled most of the Americas other groups had some land to and diseases were spread along with plants, animals, and ideas. The explorers who came to find new routes to Asia didn't find it but did find new land and start colonies. Colonies grew and started to find new things and the slave trade increased.
Spain claims an Empire
Terms and Names:
Treaty of Tordesillas, Missionary, Mercantilism, Amerigo Vespucci, Conquistador, Hernando Cortes, Montezuma, and Francisco Pizarro.
Spain and Portugal Compete
Europeans Explore Foreign Lands
The Invasion of Mexico
Reasons for Spanish Victories
Other Spanish Explorers
Conquest of the Incan Empire
The Search for the Northwest Passage
Spain Responds to Competition
Spain and England Clash
The Defeat of the Spanish Armada
The French and Dutch Seek Trade
Spanish Colonies in the Americas
Life in Spanish America
The Role of the Church
Sugar Plantations Develop
The Abuse of Native Americans
The Columbian Exchange
Beginnings of Slavery in the Americas
Terms and Names:
Slavery, African Diaspora, Middle Passage, Slave Codes, Racism.
The Origins of American Slavery
The Slave Trade
The Middle Passage
Slavery in the Americas
The treaty of Tordesillas was created because Portugal was not happy with the amount of land they had and gained more by this treaty. After the treaty was signed Spain and Portugal went on more voyages to gain power, wealth and fame. They had three main goals: to spread Christianity through the missionaries. They wanted to expand their empires. And they wanted to be rich.
After Christopher Columbus discovered the new land one of the first to go back was Amerigo Vespucci. He was a Italian sailor who went to find a route to Asia in 1501. While on the journey he reliazed that the land he saw was not Asia and went to a German mapmaker and the Map maker named the land after him. Another explorer was a Portuguese sailor was Ferdinand Magellan he was going to go around South America to Asia but instead landed in the Philippines being the olny people at the time to sail across the world.
Spanish soldiers called conquistadors went and explored the Americas and claimed the land for Spain. Hernando Cortes was one of the soldiers. He landed on the Central American coast in 1519. The arrival of the spanish took the Aztec Empire by surprise. The Aztec Emperor Montezuma didn't like and was afraid of Cortes. He believed that he was sent by a Aztec God to rule Mexico. He marched in with his army trying to make an alliance. But Cortes took Montezuma as captive when he welcomed them in. The Aztecs surrounded the Spaniards and a fight happened. the night was called the sad night because so many people died that night. Cortes led his troops back many Aztecs got smallpox and other diseases from the Europeans.
Even though the Aztecs fell the Inca was still a very powerful empire. Stories of the Incan wealth spread to the Europeans and like the Aztecs the Incans feared the Europeans. When a explore named Francisco Pizarro went to Peru and killed many Incans. Even though the leader gave them the gold and silver they stilled killed him. Then Pizarro took over the area of the Incans and called it Peru.
There are four main reasons why the Spanish defeated the Aztecs and Inca. The first one is that the other groups died because of diseases brought from the Europeans. the second one is the Spanish were very good soldiers and sailors and had weapons that were more advanced. The third reason is that Spain made alliances with the other Native Americans who did not like the Incas and the Aztecs. And the fourth reason is that the Spaniards were brutal toward groups to get control.
Other explores that looked hoped to find gold and silver and a new route to Asia. Although most did not find a new route and did not get what they were looking for they did travel through new land and claimed it for Spain.
The search for the Northwest passage was a route that sailors tried to find to get through the Americas to Asia. One of the first explorers to try to find this route was John Cabot. In 1497 he traveled to find the Northwest passage for the English. he landed in Newfoundland Canada. He was convinced that he had found Asia and claimed the land for England. The next year they set sail looking for Japan but was never heard from again. In 1524 another explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano set sail to try and find the Northwest passage. he explored but never found one on the coastline. Between 1534-1536 a explorer named Jacques Cartier tried to find the passage but only traveled to St. Lawrence river. He never found the passage.
As the French and English started to claim land in the Americas Spain became upset because the land that they were claiming land that was theirs under the treaty. The fights that were going on in Europe only angered them all more and fights broke out in the Americas. Florida was one of the main battle grounds between them. The French and Spanish had a fight because the leader of Spain wanted his men to burn and hang the french and a battle broke out between them.
The English and Spanish also had fights. In Europe the Queen at the time who was Queen Elizabeth the 1st was Protestant and Spain who were Catholic wanted to remove her from power. The two went to war at sea though the English navy was not as strong as the Spanish they still fought and during the fight sailors would go from ship to ship getting any type of gold or silver they could find back. In the end the English beat the Spanish and raided the Spanish ports and arrived back in 1580.
After the English won the fight at sea and raided the Spanish ports Spain wanted to teach them a lesson. The king Phillip the 2nd sent the Spanish Armada to take England and turn it to a Catholic empire. The Armada was a fleet of 130 ships that went to England in 1588. The two groups met in the English Channel.the English smaller ships went in and attacked the warships and the Armada retreated with olny half its ships and a storm hitting them. The win over Spain showed that they were very powerful and their own group to other empires in Europe.
The French started to focus on North America as they wanted the land there. Samuel de Champlain explored the St. Lawrence river. In 1608 he established a post for fur trading in Quebec. This post became a area of North America that the French claimed. After a long while the place where he had established the fur trading post became known as New France and began to grow. At that time the Dutch were also building a colony called New Netherland. It was by the Hudson River. In 1626 the Dutch bought Manhattan from the Native Americans and claimed it.
The Spanish empire grew very large by the 1700's. By then Spain claimed the land and controlled most of it in the Americas. The Spanish split the land up into provinces that were called viceroyalty. In each one there was a viceroy who ruled in the kings name for that land. They also built roads for transportation and for soldiers to move place to place. the roads also help the Spanish gain gold and silver from the trade that went through the roads.
To help make colonies productive they received encomienda. That was a grant of Native American labor. They also created large estates called haciendas that provided food for the colony. Native Americans worked on the land and lived on it to. They had to farm things such as cash crops coffee and cotton mostly. The people with the least rights was the Native Americans, and the person with the most was the person in charge.
The Catholic church was big in the Americas because Spain dominated most of it and that was their religion. The church built things called missions that were land with a church and a town. The church's goal was to spread Catholic faith throughout the Americas to NAtive Americans. Missionaries help the Natve Americans with their food source and amount that they got and spread the word to the Native Americans. In the 1680's a man called the Pope lead the church and Native Americans in rebellion and tried to take back the old ways of their life but it was too late and before long Spain over powered them again.
Native Americans were forced to work on plantations as well as farms. Most palntations were cash crops and sugar that was exported out to Europe and was in great demand there. The Spanish made the Native people or groups work on the plantations and grow it in many different places. Although the plantations thrived many of the Natives and other Groups suffered and died from disease.
Most of the colonist in the Americas treated the Native Americans with no respect and only used them for free labor. There was one man named Bartolome de Las Casas was confused because he was a priest he thought how could a person enslave and treat another human like this. He let his go aand realized that it was wrong and fought for the slaves to be free for 50 years until he died.
The Columbian Exchange was a major part in the Americas. The exchange brought livestock, plants, crops, and diseases to the Americas from Europe. Europe gained from this because it gave them more profit to sell more and receive new things. The diseases that came over killed a lot of the Natives and Other groups. The Columbian Exchange also included people that became slaves.
Slavery became big in the Americas because they needed people to work on the plantations and farms. The Native Americans were dying off because of disease and the colonist realized that they wouldn't have anyone to work on the plantations. In Europe people had African slaves because they were immune to the diseases and were being sold because a empire captured people and sold them for wealth or they just needed money. The colonist realized this and took advantage and bought and auctioned off slaves in the Americas.
The slave trade was slow at first but by 1509 when a Spanish governor complained about the shortage of free labor workers the idea of the slave trade went fast. The Africans sold slaves to the Americas in huge ships with many slaves and though a few slaves still went to other places most of all the African slaves went to the Americas and were treated badly. On the coast of Africa kings would gather up peasants and captured people and sell the to the Spanish and Europeans.
The people of Africa were being removed and placed in the Americas. This later was known as African Diaspora. The slave trade before ending in the 1800's went throughout a passage called the middle passage because it was the middle leg of a triangular trade system. The slaves were held in little spots separated by gender and age and going across the sea to the Americas and islands around the Americas.
When the slaves were brought to the Americas they were sold at auctions to work on haciendas and other plantations. Some slaves tried to rebel to stop this the Spanish government passed slave codes. Slave codes where laws to help the treatment of slaves and what people could do to them. After awhile the Europeans started to associate slaves with Africans. This led to the idea of racism that based on skin color were certain things such as blacks were slaves. The slaves brought with them though new ideas that spread throughout the Americas. By the 1700's all colonies in the Americas had slaves which changed the Americas forever.