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Classical Greece Autopsy

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Isabella Swigart

on 15 October 2016

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Transcript of Classical Greece Autopsy

Greek literature consisted of epic poetry, philosophy, drama and more.

30 drachmas
The Peloponnesian War
Philip II's Invasion of Greece
- 431 BCE: Sparta declares war on Athens because it believed Athens had grown too powerful

- Athens (Delian League) vs. Sparta (Peloponnesian League)

- Lasted for 27 years

- 430 BCE: Plague kills 1/3 of Athens, including Pericles
- disastrous results: weakened Greek city-states

- made it easy for invaders from the north to conquer a few decades later, when the city-states were still struggling
338 BCE
Vol XCIII, No. 340
Two major factors contributed to its fall:
What caused the fall?
Greece's Autopsy
GREECE IS DEAD!!!

30 drachmas
HEAD: LEADERS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
HANDS: ART, ARCHITECTURE, TECHNOLOGY
LEGS: LABOR SYSTEMS
SPINE: POLITICAL STRUCTURE
RIBS: SOCIETAL INFRASTRUCTURE
HEART: RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
PEN: LITERATURE
FEET: TRADE ROUTES AND GOODS TRADED
Aristoi
Middle, Business Class
Metoikoi
Periokoi and Laborers
Slaves
city-states scattered throughout empire, each separately ruled
decentralized government due to geography
range of political organizations, including
monarchy
oligarchy
aristocracy
tyranny
democracy
held important roles in ruling--
government positions, scholars, commanders of the military
UPPER CLASS:
LOWER CLASS:
MIDDLE CLASS:
smaller, everyday jobs that commoners held--
contractors, merchants, managers, manufacturers, tradesmen, artists, craftsmen
SLAVES: worked for upper class--
trading, etc.
Powerful families with important positions in the polis
Had the best land : fertile and protected by the wall
Women
Few rights (unable to vote, own land, or inherit)
Purpose was to take care of kids
Contact with non-family males was discouraged
Spartan women had more rights
Could do physical training
Permitted to own land
Could drink wine


Did manufacturing, commerce and trade
Foreigners who moved to Greece
Registered as residents
Payed taxes
Part of the army when needed
Periokoi:
Men who had land farther away from city walls
Lived together in small villages near cities
Laborers:
Serfs and helots
Had arrangements with their employers
War captives or kidnapped and purchased
Didn't have many rights
Help with the production of goods and agriculture
Greek Mythology: stories about the Gods regarding human affairs
Had temples built for specific Gods where rituals were conducted
Some gods were patrons of cities
Priests conducted rituals and delivered prayers
Pericles
-statesmen who led Athens from 461-429 BCE in its Golden Age
-increased number of paid officials
-built strongest navy in Mediterranean
-used money from Delian League to buy gold, ivory, marble, and paid artists to beautify Athens
-master orator
-died from the Athenian plague
Architecture
Temple of Zeus-temple built in Olympia in the center of the Altis to honor Zeus in the 5th century BCE
-largest temple in the Peloponnese
-columns made of local shell-limestone covered by white stucco, only roof tiles and sculptures made of marble
-includes 40 ft statue of Zeus made by Phidias overlaid by gold and ivory (chryselephantine)
-built from 472-456 BCE
Parthenon-temple built in Athens on the Acropolis to honor Athena in the 5th century BCE
-includes a 30 foot high gold and ivory statue of Athena built by Phidias
-Doric columns
-made of white marble
-built from 447-432 BCE
Art
Classical art-portrayed ideal beauty, serene features, harmony, order, proportion
Discobolus
-original bronze statue made by Myron in the mid-5th century BC
-captured movement of man throwing discus as well as Greek beauty ideals
-serene facial expression
Panathenic Amphora
-painted and incised pottery
-mainly made in 5th and 6th centuries BCE
-often used as prizes or trophies
-about 2 feet tall
-made around 500-480 BCE
-crafted by the Kleophrades painter
-shows Athena with her aegis (goatskin shield)
Frescoes
-large paintings done on walls or ceilings
-popular with early Greeks
-showed scenes of Minoan life and religion (bull-leaping and the sea)
Technology
-mathematics (geometry): Thales and Pythagoras
-astronomy: Thales, Anaxagoras
-medicine: Hippocrates
-biology: Aristotle
-cartography: Anaximander
-drama: Sophocles, Aristophanes, Aeschylus
-historians: Herodotus and Thucydides
-philosophy: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
-water mill: used waterwheel and toothed gears to transfer power to mill which grinds grain
-alarm clock: Plato triggered a water clock to play organ at a specific time
-central heating: transferred hot air from fires to empty spaces under temple floors
-crane: lifted heavy blocks, invented in the late 6th century BCE

Accomplishments
monarchy -> oligarchy -> tyranny -> democracy
Polytheistic
Natural law: gods don't cause natural phenomenon
Check out the rest of today's paper for a look back on Greek culture, government, accomplishments, and more.
Athens:
- Two important pieces of Greek poetry are
The Iliad
and
The Odyssey
, both written by Homer.
The Iliad
was based on the Trojan war, and
The Odyssey
was based on Odysseus' travel back home after the war.


PHILOSOPHY

Philosophy was one of Greek's greatest achievements
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were three very important contributors to Greek philosophy
Socrates developed the Socratic Method, involving critical thinking in discussion with others
Plato, student of Socrates, was interested in the theory of the art of knowing and living
Aristotle made contributions to logic, math, physics, biology, agriculture, medicine, etc.



Did animal sacrifices and liberations
- Peloponnesian War left city-states weak and divided
- Phillip II of Macedonia invades in 357 BCE
- 338 BCE: forces defeated an alliance of Greek city-states including Athens, Thebes, and the Battle of Chaeronea marked the end of Ancient Greece
- son Alexander the Great later creates an enormous empire from Greece to Egypt to India
THEATER
- Greek theater developed in Athens. Tragedy was the most popular form of theater in Greece.

Autopsy
Trading goods:
-cereals
-wine
-olives (olive oil)
-figs
-pulses
-eels
-cheese
-honey
-meat (especially from sheep and goats)
-knives
-perfumes
-fine pottery


TRADING ROUTES
Mountains made it hard for Greek to travel, so most of their trade was done on the sea.
They used:
the Ionian Sea
Mediterranean Sea
the Aegean Sea
the Black Sea
After 323 BCE, more trade routes were opened
to Greece across Asia, extending as far as the
Indus River Valley.

King Philip II of Macedonia invades Greece and conquers it in 340 BCE
Peloponnesian War weakens the Greek city-states

Myron. The Townley Discobolus. The British Museum, www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/
   collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=8760&partId=1.

Panathenaic Amphora. The British Museum, www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/
   collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=398825&partId=1&object=21230&page=1.

"Temple of Zeus." Olympia Greece, www.olympia-greece.org/templezeus.html.

"Parthenon." Encylcopedia Britannica, www.britannica.com/topic/Parthenon.

"Pericles." History, 2009, www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/pericles.

Cartwright, Mark . "Greek Society." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 17 Mar. 2013. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <http://www.ancient.eu/article/483/>.

Cartwright, Mark. "Greek Religion." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 11 Apr. 2013. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <http://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Religion/>.

"Ancient Greece Hierarchy." Hierarchy Structure, www.hierarchystructure.com/
   ancient-greece-hierarchy/. Accessed 8 Oct. 2016.

Tignor, Robert, et al. Worlds Together, Worlds Apart. 3rd ed., W. W. Norton & Company.
CITATIONS
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