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Ch. 1 - Section 1 & 2

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Alisha Jarvis

on 1 September 2015

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Transcript of Ch. 1 - Section 1 & 2

Ch. 1 - Biology in the 21st Century
The Study of Life
All living things and all the places they are found on Earth make up the biosphere. Every part of the biosphere is connected with every other part of the biosphere.
Section 1.2
Organisms are individual living things. All living things share certain characteristics, but the actual definition of living is not so simple.
The Way out
Earth's biosphere is about 25 miles high and as deep as 1 mile.
Biodiversity - the variety of life in a specific area
Over half of the known species exist are insects, but no one knows how many insect species actually exist.

A species is a group of organisms that are closely related and can produce fertile offspring.

Most hybrids are not considered a new species because they are not able to produce offspring. Ex: mules & ligers
So what makes something alive?
All organisms need a source of energy to live.
All organisms must respond to their environment.
Living organisms must be able to reproduce and develop.
Two organisms can also work together to form a system.

Ecosystems are a community of organisms and their physical environment. This includes the living (biotic) and abiotic (nonliving) factors.
Niche - the role a species plays in a community
Consider: space, food, and any other conditions an organism needs to survive and reproduce. All of these are part of its niche.
Habitat - the place where an organism lives out its life

Several species may share a habitat, but the niches must be
Species relationsips
allow organisms to obtain energy and materials necessary for life process
Biology is the study of living things!
Science is the knowledge obtained by observing natural events and conditions in order to discover facts and formulate laws or principles that can be verified or tested.
Cells are the basic unit of life. All living things are made up of cells. Living things can be muticellular or unicellular.
All levels of life have systems of related parts. These systems work together to make up the organism.

Systems can be as small as molecules interacting, or can be organ systems in an animal.
Biodiversity increases from the poles to the equator.
Section 1.1
Unifying Themes of Biology
Energy is the ability to cause a change or do work. All living things use chemical energy. Animals obtain energy by eating other organisms.

We use energy for metabolism, which is the process of building or breaking down materials inside an organism.
Even plants respond to their environment - they search for food, sunlight, and water as best they can.
DNA is the means of passing on genetic material.
How structure and function are related:
Different parts of your body (and other organisms' bodies as well) work together because of structure and function.

You have different types of teeth in your mouth, and each different type has a different function. Cells for various organs in your body differ from each other in structure, which means they will differ in function as well.
Homeostasis is balance.

Organisms must maintain constant internal conditions or they will not survive.
Temperature, blood sugar, and acidity are a few conditions that must be controlled.

Homeostasis is regulated with a negative feedback system.
Negative feedback works very much like the A/C system in this classroom. When the temperature in the class reaches what I have set it to, the system will shut off. It also works like the cruise control on your car.

The system is sending a message back that says: "STOP WHAT YOU ARE DOING!" or "DO THAT THING AGAIN!"

A positive feedback system would say: "KEEP IT UP, KEEP GOING!" This is the type of system that organisms use when giving birth.
Evolution & Adaptation
Evolution is the change in things over time.
Ex: The Komodo Dragon has evolved into the largest land lizard in the world because it has no natural predators.

Adaptation is how things change or evolve over time.
Ex: Otters have adapted to an aquatic life by developing nostrils and ears that close under water.
Why is biodiversity important?
Bees, moths, and other insects are important for pollinating both wild plants and crops. However, many bee populations are declining, and at least one species of bee has gone extinct.

Ecologists are concerned that plant species that depend on pollination from bees and other pollinators may decline in response to pollinator decline.
Humans have studied living things through out history.
Science in Ancient Civilizations: Many ancient civilizations studied biology. They learned about natural processes and used this knowledge to address the needs of society.

Ex: Asian Civilizations used herbal medicines. South American civilizations developed agricultural techniques, such as irrigation. Ancient Egyptian civilizations practiced mummification.

What civilization first studied medicine?
The Egyptians are considered to be the first to study medicine as we know it today.
Science Trivia
The hair of the polar bear is transparent. It appears white because it reflects visible light, in much the same way that snow and ice do.

Polar bears have hollow hair to help maintain homeostasis. How does this work?

Polar bears at the San Diego and Singapore zoos turned green when algae infested the hollow centers of their hair!!

A polar bear at a zoo in Argentina turned purple in response to a medical treatment for dermatitis!
A Komodo Dragon really is quite large.
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