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Employee Engagement

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Sanne Saaby

on 18 November 2014

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Transcript of Employee Engagement

What is it?
Practical example
How to use it
Martin Faaborg
Mia Kjærås
Sanne Saaby
Macey & Schneider (2008)
Kahn (1990)
"Employee Engagement is a desirable condition, has an organizational purpose, and connotes involvement, commitment, passion, enthusiasm, focused effort, and energy, so it has both attitudinal and behavioral components
"I defined personal engagement as the harnessing of organizational members' selves to their work roles; in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances." ....and "Personal engagement is the simultaneous employment and expression of a person's "preferred self"in task behaviors that promote connections to work and to others, personal presence (physical, cognitive and emotional), and active, full role performances."
Definitions of Employee Engagement

Why is it relevant?
Key factors
Understanding the elements of Employee Engagement
Work Engagement
Organizational benefits
Why is it relevant?
Employee Engagement
A Practical Example
Job satisfaction
Organizational Commitment
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
Employee Engagement
A Presentation of
"..beyond job satisfaction and not simply motivation."
(CIPD 2012)

Definitions of
Employee Engagement
Key factors
Work Engagement
Related concepts
Kahn's Conceptualization of engagement
Measurement of Employee Engagement
Employee Engagement in practice
Related concepts
Kahn's Conceptualization of Engagement
Employee Engagement in practice
The example of Philips
Outlines of definitions
Employee Engagement is...
beyond job satisfaction
(CIPD 2012)
more than motivation
(CIPD 2012)
an exchange process
(Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005)
something the employee has to offer the organization
(CIPD 2012)
a relationship between the individual and the actual job
(Nelson & Simmons 2003)
a combination of commitment and values towards the organization
(CIPD 2012) (Robinson et al. 2004)
"Employee Engagement is associated with a range of positive outcomes at the individual and organizational levels:" (Gallup 2010)
The outcome of engaged employees
Better performance
More innovative
More loyal more likely to stay
Greater level of well-being
Too engaged employees can lead to ill-health and burnout
Key Characteristics
1. Decision-making process
Employees feel valued and
Manager listen to their views, ideas and contributions

2. Enhanced and improved work

3. Concern for the employee
Demonstrated for physical, mental and emotional well-being
Macey & Schneider (2008)
Organizational benefits
Related but not equal
"....a key distinction between the two concepts is that the attitudinal experience of commitment occurs apart from, or as a
consequence of, day-to-day work activity
, whereas engagement is
developed and sustained though work
and particularly the interaction with managers and co-workers"

(Jones & Harter, 2005)
Organizational Commitment vs. Employee Engagement
Psychological conditions
"...how people's experiences of themselves and their work context influenced moments of personal engagement and disengagement." (Kahn, 1990)
Psychological Meaningfulness
Psychological Safety
Psychological Availability
Psychological Meaningfulness
Psychological Safety
Psychological Availability

What can the organization do?
Measuring Human Resource Management in general
As goes for most subjects of HRM, measurement of Employee Engagement can be difficult. Approaches and strategies required are as multifaceted and complex as the concept itself and it almost goes without saying that, once again, 'one size will not fit all'.
(HRM 2014)

Each perspective of engagement must be seen in the context.
One size does not fit all.....
Three questions answers
determines the engagement
Not only job-related
Not taken for granted
A lot to give and receive
Both routine and new elements
"The job is meaningfulness if the employee feels worthwhile, useful and valuable"

"...to try and perhaps to fail without fearing the consequences"

Relationships between people
Dynamics between people
Outside life
"Psychological availability is the sense of having the right physical, emotional or psychological resources to personally engage at a particular moment"
Apply meaningfulness to the job
Make the employee feel secure
Prepare the employee to the job
Gallup 2010
At my work, I feel bursting with energy
At my job, I feel strong and vigorous
When I get up in the morning, I feel like going to work
I can imagine working for very long periods at a time
At my job, I am very resilient, mentally
At my work I always persevere, even when thing do not go well

I find the work that I do full of meaning and purpose
I am enthusiastic
My job inspires me
I am proud of the work that I do
To me, my job is challenging
Time flies when I'm working
When I am working, I forget else around me
I feel happy when I am working intensely
I am immersed in my work
I get carried away when I am working
It is difficult to detach myself from my job
"Engagement is a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication and absorption. Rather than a momentary and specific state,
engagement refers to a more persistent and pervasive affective-cognitive state
that is not focused on any particular object, event, individual or behavior......"
(Gonzalez- Roma & Bakker, 2002 Schaufeli, Salanova)
The case of Philips
Annual survey of employee engagement
Widespread questionnaire of 43 points

Employee Engagement Index (EEI)
The collective employee engagement
People Leadership Index (PLI)
Focus on the general effect of leadership
Robinson et al. 2004
Beneficial Discretionary Effort
Customer Satisfaction
Customer Retention

Voluntary Turnover
Cost base
"...affect on the bottom line and so ultimately the profitability"
Human Resource Management - A Contemporary Approach
7th edition by Julie Beardwell & Amanda Thompson
Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement at Work
by William A. Khan (1990)
Subjective Well-Being in Organizations
by Arnold B. Bakker & Wido G. M. Oerlemans (2010)
The Meaning of Employee Engagement
By William H. Macey & Benjamin Schneider (2008)
A Critical Review of the Job Demands-Resources Model: Implications for Improving Work and Health
by Wilmar B. Schaufeli & Toon W. Taris (2014)
UWES Utrecht Work Engagement Scale
by Wilmar Shaufeli & Arnold Bakker (2004)
The Measurement of Engagement andBurnout: A Two Sample Confirmatory Factor and Analytic Approach
by Wilmar B. Schaufeli, Marisa Salanova, Vincete Gonzâlez-Roma & Arnold Bakker
Employee Engagement What's Your Engagement Ratio?

Gallup Consulting (2010)
Towards a Model of Work Engagement
by Arnold B. Bakker & Evangelia Dermerouti (2008)
The Drivers of Employee Engagement Report 408
by Robinson D. Perryman (2004)
Full transcript