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Prison Life Presentation CJA234
Transcript of Prison Life Presentation CJA234
CJA/234 Intro to Corrections
By Ciara Banks, Suzanne Contenta, Ryan Harrington, Madison Nichols
Prison Life Presentation
Jail vs Prison Inmates
While both jails and prisons incarcerate individuals for the crime(s) they have committed, there are many differences between them, which most people do not realize. A jail and prison are two completely different facilities built for two different operations.
State vs. Federal Prison/ers
When a person thinks of inmates, they normally just believe that they are all the same. What most people do not realize is there are two different types of prisons and prisoners within the U.S. Though both are still prisons and are used to incarcerate those who violate the laws set forth by our Congress, state legislators, or even the city in which they reside.
Inmates begin their incarceration process in jail after their arrest. They go to trial and are found guilty of their crime(s) and then they are normally sent to prison. Prison is by definition a building for physical confinement of a person for a form of punishment for an act they have committed. Inmates may serve a few years of their life confined within the walls or even their entire life; until death allows them to leave prison walls. The ultimate goal of the prison system is to keep criminals away from society and attempt to rehabilitate them to become a productive member of society.
Male and Female Inmates
In 2009 male inmates were 14 times higher than female inmates (West). Female inmates and males inmates are similar and different in several ways. Female inmates usually come from a background of domestic violence, sexual assault in childhood, or drug addiction. In 1992, 92.1% of the women inmates were sexually abused by someone in some form of relationship to them. In 2002, 11.2% of male inmates said they were victims of physical abuse and 4% said they were victims of sexual abuse. Many believe the number is higher because many men are embarrassed to report that they were abused as a child. There are inmates who grew up in homes of drug/alcohol-abusive parents (Library, 2013).
Males get into the a life of crime because many are obsessed with power, which steers them towards a life of crime. Drug and alcohol addictions also contribute can contribute to incarceration.
Changes to Pirson Life Over Tme
Violence has become an issue in all jails around the world. Inmates can experience anything from rape by officers or other inmates to gang violence. Because there is no real way to report and analyze the violence its hard to control. The Bureau of Justice Statistics estimates that there are 6,241 reports of sexual assault in jails. Overcrowding is also an issue that sometimes presents prison violence as well. The reason overcrowding plays a role in violence is because it causes the inmates to be overstressed with the situation at hand causing some of them to act out. You also have at hand the inmates who come into the prison that are already violent. Another factor in prison violence is homosexuality. Men who come into the prison who may be smaller or weaker in statute will be targeted in this case.
Amend, A.W. "Giving precise content to the eighth amendment: An assessment of the remedial provisions of the prison litigation reform act." (2008)
Columbia Law Review. 1
08(1). pps. 143-181
Columbia Law Review Association, Inc.
Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40041768
CJi Interactive. Chapter 11: Corrections: History and institutions. Retrieved from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/UC/CJ/index.html
Library index-characteristics of inmates. (2013). Retrieved from http://<a href="http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2529/Characteristics-Inmates-PAST-ABUSE-FAMILY-BACKGROUND.html">Characteristics of Inmates - Past Abuse And Family Background</a>
Logan, C.H. "Well kept: Comparing quality of confinement in private and public prisons." (1992) The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 83(3) pps. 577-613 Retrived from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1143839
McWilliams, J.M. "'Cruel and unusual punishments": Use and misuse of the eighth amendment." (1967)
American Bar Association Journal
53(5). pps. 451-455
American Bar Association
Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25724019
Minton, T. D. (2013). U.S. Department of Justice-Inmates At Midyear 2012-Statistical Tables. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/jim12st.pdf
Seiter, R. (2011). Corrections: An introduction (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
West, H. C. (2012). United states department of justice-prison inmates midyear 2009-statistical tables. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pim09st.pdf
Newman, T. "Any other name."
Cafe del mar 8.
The Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is mostly notable for the "cruel and unusual punishments" clause.
In 1995, Congress passed the Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA) in response to a large influx of cases being brought forth by inmates.
In 2008, Andrew Amend wrote that the PLRA limited prisoners' rights and was among many that sought to repeal the Act.
In 1995 there were approximately 40000 civil rights lawsuits brought forth by inmates.
This number has continued to drop since the PLRA. In 2006 this number dropped to about 25000
The idea of prisoners having limited rights was acknowledged by the 1948 Supreme Court decision on Price v. Johnston (Seiter, 2011)
Throughout the years changes had to be made so that inmates basic civil rights were not hindered; for example freedom of religion.
Cooper v. Pate
Federal courts are still continuing to get civil rights case from inmates year after year most often due to unprofessionalism from corrections officers.
Prison life and prisoner happiness espeically in the ever-crowding state prison system will continue to be a problem unless something is done to change it.
Prisoners are continuning to act of violently and find new ways to act out their aggression on staff and other inmates.
The main issue with litigations is that they continue to persist even with the attempt to reduce prisoner unhappiness.
• Jails house inmates after arrest.
• There are about 3,600 jails in the United States.
• Jails house inmates until and during the trial process.
• Jails house inmates for up to a year upon conviction, usually until the inmate is transferred to a prison.
• Jails normally have less freedoms than prisons.
• Jails are normally operated by the County Sheriff, but some cities operate their own.
• Jails have a higher volume and more bed turnovers than a prison throughout the year. Between midyear 2011 and midyear 2012 the jail inmates increased 1.2% (744,524 inmates).
• Prisons hold people convicted of a crime for the entirety of their sentence that is over a year.
• Prisons are ran by the state or the federal government.
• Inmates in prisons are already convicted of the crime and are not awaiting trial.
• Prisons are normally completely fenced off with guard towers or armed guards.
• Prisons typically house more inmates then jails.
• Prisons are where death sentences are carried out.
• Prisons are usually divided based on crimes committed, while jails are not (West, 2012).
State prisons incarcerate the individuals found guilty of crimes within the state and city, which they reside. A state can have multiple prisons within its borders.
• State prisons are funded by the state government from the taxes levied on citizens.
• Funding normally depends upon the amount of incarcerated inmates within its walls.
• State prisons house more inmates than a federal prison.
• State prisons normally have more faculty and guards.
• State prisons are more secured than most of the federal prisons.
• Inmates receive telephone, TV, and sometimes Internet privileges.
• Inmates are normally confined to a “day room” and only have an open field for outside recreation.
Federal prisons are designed to incarcerate those convicted of committing a federal crime. A federal crime is anything made illegal by U.S. federal legislation. A federal crime is prosecuted under federal criminal law.
• Federal prisons are developed and funded by the federal government.
• Federal prisons are operated and staffed by The Federal Bureau of Prisons.
• Federal prisons can be very open and have a small faculty.
• Federal prisons house more white-collar criminals.
The process of detaining accused offenders is seen throughout history all the way back to the earliest civilization and governments around the world. What a lot of people may not realize is that the use of prisons and jails used as a place for punishment is a relatively new concept. Most punishments in the early eighteenth century were things that imposed on people's social statuses or their economic interests. Sometimes this meant people would have to give up their land, as punishment. If you were a member of the lower class the punishments tend to be a little more severe by things such as mutilation and execution.
From the ancient Greeks through the Middle Ages punishments were often done in public. Nowadays, prisons are strictly used as a form of punishment, and the death penalty has replaced the old "eye for an eye" concept. Prisoners that were detained in ancient times were often imprisoned for life for slave labor. It wasn’t until early Colonial America that the Quakers thought criminals should serve penance for their crimes. This idea of penance and the penitentiary led to the models of deterrence, restoration, rehabilitation, incapacitation, and retribution, which are used in some form in all prisons and jails today.
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Commercially available from Prezi
Private vs Non-Private
Private prisons have been given a bad rap from many outside sources. However, in 1992 Chalres Logan investigated the quality of three different women's prisons; state, federal, and private.
While it was determined that all the prisons were of high quality based on a multitude of factors the private prison outperformed its government-run counter parts on nearly every dimension.
One way prisoners of all kinds can help to reduce violence, the number of litigations and even help increase prisoner happiness is to make sure every inch of their facility is covered by trusted staff and/or cameras.
Corrections officers (COs) may be acting out of order and causing distress with inmates. The best way to stop these actions is to catch these officers in the act.
This will reduce the number of complaints from prisoners and protects the prison adminstration from any blame if the officers is out of line.
Many corrections may not have the same skills or accreditations as other due to the varying requirements of prisons from state to state.
If prisons administrators require more training then staff members can be better prepared to handle special inmates, foresee violent actions of other inmates and place more responsilbity on the knowledge and professionalism of COs.
Prisons should look out for their own interests by hiring professional and qualified staff.
By keeping up-to-date with all federal and state requirement they can keep themselves running more smoothly and potentially receive more funding due to a good record.
Staff members need to be trained in protecting themselves from mental and physical abuse from inmates.
Spitting is common at some prisons.
Additionally inmates need to be able to protect themselves if need be by placing themselves in solitary.
Prison rape continues to be a problem in state prisons
Jails vs. Prisons facilities and inmates
State vs. Federal Prison/ers
Private vs Public
Male vs. Female Prisoners
Prison Life through the years
Extent and Nature of Prison Violence
Extent and Nature of Prison Litigation
AND recommendations for prisons