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The Heart and Circulation

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Laura Ch

on 20 October 2013

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Transcript of The Heart and Circulation

The Heart and Circulation
Shortness of breath or breathlessness

Caused by exertion, physical as climbing stairs but even at rest
A patient who is breathless when lying flat
SOBOE The abbreviation. stands for shortness of breath on exercise
Heart rhythm
The heart rate is 65-75 beats per min.

In athletes 40 beats per minute.
In extreme athletic activity, to 200/min
Irregular rhythm
Arrhythmia = there may be early beats or premature beats. They may vary with respiration.
Fibrillation = it may be completely irregular and describe the symptom as palpitations.
Heart Failure
Occurs when the heart is unable to maintain sufficient cardiac (blood pumped by the heart ) output for the body’s needs
In left heart failure the main symptom is breathlessness.
The symptoms of right heart failure include peripheral or edema (swelling).
The words that a patient would use to describe the symptoms
1. Dyspnoea. breathlessness
2. Arrhythmia. palpitations
3. Orthopnoea. breath lessness when lying flat
4. Oedema. swelling
Physical examination
1. Inspection (looking)
2. Palpation (feeling with the hands)
3. Percussion (tapping with a finger)
4. Auscultation (listening with a stethoscope)
Examining the heart and circulation
Look: the lips, tongue and nails, for cyanosis.
Palpate the chest= In the fifth left intercostal space, one centimetre medial to the midclavicular line.
Heart size may be measured by percussion.
Feel: the radial pulse at the wrist and note the rate (for min) and rhythm (regular or irregular).

Measure the blood pressure, and assess the jugular venous pressure (JVP)
• mid-systolic (in the middle of systole)
• pan-systolic (lasting for the whole of systole)
• early diastolic
• mid-diastolic
• late diastolic (pre-systolic)
listening at the tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary areas.
The most common murmurs are:
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