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Muscular Hypertrophy, Power, & Endurance

Berry College - Dept. of Kinesiology
by

David Elmer

on 14 November 2013

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Transcript of Muscular Hypertrophy, Power, & Endurance

Muscle Action
Loading
Volume
Exercise Selection
Free weights vs machines
Exercise Order
Rest Periods
Velocity of muscle action
Frequency
Concentric
muscle shortening
Isometric
no change in muscle length
Eccentric
muscle lengthening
"For progression during resistance training for novice, intermediate, and advanced individuals, it is recommended that concentric, eccentric, and isometric muscle actions be included." - ACSM
Usually based on a percentage of 1 RM
Loads of only 45-50% of 1 RM have been shown to increase strength in untrained people
Loads of at least 80% of 1 RM are necessary for strength improvements in trained individuals
For long term progression, variations in load are necessary (periodization)
"It is recommended that novice to intermediate individuals train with loads corresponding to 60-70% of 1 RM for 8-12 repetitions and advanced individuals cycle training loads of 80-100% of 1 RM to maximize muscular strength." - ACSM
"For progression... it is recommended that a 2-10% (lower % for small muscle mass, higher % for large muscle mass exercises) increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number on two consecutive training sessions." - ACSM
total reps x resistance
there is some dispute about whether to use single or multiple sets for novices
there is no dispute that multiple sets are better for more experienced individuals
How many sets? ~8 per muscle group for trained athletes
"It is recommended that one to three sets per exercise be used by novice individuals initially" - ACSM
For progression: multiple sets with systematic variation in volume and intensity over time
Dramatic increases in volume is not recommended - ACSM
Multi-joint exercises require complex neural responses and are more effective at increasing overall muscular strength
more total weight lifted
Single-joint exercise: good for targeting specific muscle groups, but require reduced amount of skill and involvement
Unilateral vs bilateral training...
"Unilateral and bilateral single- and multi-joint exercises should be included... with emphasis on multiple-joint exercises for maximizing strength in novice, intermediate, and advanced individuals." - ACSM
safer, easier to learn
variety of movements
less neural activation
intra- and intermuscular coordination that mimics real-life task requirements
difficult to learn, more dangerous
Free weight training - greater improvement in free weight testing

Machine training - greater improvement in machine testing
*choice should be based on capability, familiarity, and objectives
"For novice and intermediate training, it is recommended that free-weight and machine exercises are included."

"For advanced resistance training, it is recommended that emphasis be placed on free-weight exercises with machine exercises used to compliment program needs." - ACSM
affects acute strength, which over time will affect chronic strength gains
it is beneficial for muscle force and power to exercise antagonistic muscles, but force and power are reduced if these exercises are done consecutively
multi-joint exercise performance declines the later it is performed
performing multi-joint exercises early in a workout may be necessary for optimal strength gains
*** and don't forget about safety...
For novice, intermediate, and advanced individuals:
large muscle exercises before small muscle exercises
multi-joint before single-joint exercises
high-intensity before low-intensity exercises
rotate between upper and lower body exercises or between agonist/antagonist groups
-ACSM
acute performance may be compromised by shorter rest intervals
less decrease in performance with 3-5 min rest compared to 30 sec to 2 min rest
greater long term strength increases when longer rest periods are used
rest period length is based on the intensity and complexity of the task
"For novice, intermediate, and advanced training, it is recommended that rest periods of at least 2-3 min be used for core exercises using heavier loads (those exercises included to improve maximal strength...)
For assistance exercises... a shorter rest period of 1-2 min may suffice." -ACSM
Affects the neural, hypertrophic, and metabolic responses to resistance exercise
unintentional vs intentional slow velocity
lower force
less neural activation
less energy expenditure
limited motor unit activity
*may not provide adequate stimulus for greatest strength gains
Moderate-to-fast velocity are more effective for increasing the rate of strength gains
"For untrained individuals, it is recommended that slow and moderate velocities be used."
"For intermediate training, it is recommended that moderate velocity be used for resistance training."
"For advanced training, the inclusion of a continuum of velocities from unintentionally slow to fast velocities is recommended... the intent should be to maximize the velocity of the CON muscle action." -ACSM
the intent to move the weight as fast as possible is what is critical for maximal strength gains
it depends!
2-3 alternating days per week is sufficient for strength gains in untrained individuals
1-2 days per week is enough to maintain strength in previously trained people
overall, the evidence suggests that 3 days per week is best for untrained people
"It is recommended that novice individuals train the entire body 2-3 days per week."
"It is recommended that for progression to intermediate training, a frequency of 3-4 days per week be used (3 if using total-body workout, 4 if using a split routine...)
"It is recommended that advanced lifters train 4-6 days per week..." - ACSM
forces within the muscle are greater than the resistance force
contractile force is equal to the resistance force
force within the muscle is less than the resistance force
selective recruitment
increased muscle damage
Hypertrophy
Same as for strength training - all 3 muscle actions should be included
Hypertrophy
Moderate to high loading, and high volume
traditional resistance training results in hypertrophy, but it doesn't maximize hypertrophy
adding light loading with high repetitions to traditional resistance training may enhance hypertrophy, but light loading and high repetitions alone will not result in hypertrophy
Most effective way to increase hypertrophy is to combine strength training practices with moderate loading and high repetitions (hypertrophy training)
"For advanced hypertrophy, it is recommended that a loading range of 70-100% of 1RM be used... with the majority of training devoted to 6-12 RM and less training devoted to 1-6 RM
-ACSM
Hypertrophy
Both single-joint and multi-joint exercises increase hypertrophy
Multi-joint exercises may require a longer time for hypertrophy due to the longer time required for the nervous system to learn a more complex task
It isn't understood how the exercise order affects hypertrophy, but the order for increasing strength is effective for hypertrophy as well
"It is recommended that single- and multi-joint free-weight and machine exercises be included for novice, intermediate, and advanced individuals"
"For sequencing, an order similar to strength training is recommended"
-ACSM
Hypertrophy
the amount of rest between sets affects the metabolic and hormonal responses to exercise
less is known about how this effects hypertrophy
short rest (1-2 min) with moderate to high intensity and volume results in the greatest acute anabolic hormonal response
this is what you want!
"1-2 min rest periods for novice and intermediate training programs."
"For advanced training, 2-3 min for core exercises with heavy loads and 1-2 min for other exercises of moderate to high intensity."
-ACSM
Hypertrophy
Velocity of muscle action
for
Rest periods
for
Exercise selection and order
for
Loading and volume
for
Muscle actions
for
very little is known for sure about effect of different velocities on hypertrophy
fast eccentric, isokinetic training has been shown to result in greater hypertrophy than slow eccentric and fast or slow concentric training
but, it has been suggested that fast velocity may not create as much stimulus for hypertrophy as slow to moderate velocity
"It is recommended that slow to moderate velocities be used by novice- to intermediate-trained individuals"
"For advanced training, it is recommended that slow, moderate, and fast repetition velocities be used"
-ACSM
Frequency
Hypertrophy
for
again, it depends...
higher frequency has been suggested for advanced hypertrophy training
"Frequency of 2-3 days per week for novice training"
"For intermediate training, 3 days per week for total body workouts, or 4 days per week when using split routine"
"For advanced training, 4-6 days per week is recommended. Split routines enable higher volume per muscle group"
-ACSM
HYPERTROPHY
Loading
Usually based on a percentage of 1 RM
Loads of only 45-50% of 1 RM have been shown to increase strength in untrained people
Loads of at least 80% of 1 RM are necessary for strength improvements in trained individuals
For long term progression, variations in load are necessary (periodization)
"It is recommended that novice to intermediate individuals train with loads corresponding to 60-70% of 1 RM for 8-12 repetitions and advanced individuals cycle training loads of 80-100% of 1 RM to maximize muscular strength." - ACSM
"For progression... it is recommended that a 2-10% (lower % for small muscle mass, higher % for large muscle mass exercises) increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number on two consecutive training sessions." - ACSM
Volume
total reps x resistance
there is some dispute about whether to use single or multiple sets for novices
there is no dispute that multiple sets are better for more experienced individuals
How many sets? ~8 per muscle group for trained athletes
"It is recommended that one to three sets per exercise be used by novice individuals initially" - ACSM
For progression: multiple sets with systematic variation in volume and intensity over time
Dramatic increases in volume is not recommended - ACSM
Exercise Selection
Multi-joint exercises require complex neural responses and are more effective at increasing overall muscular strength
more total weight lifted
Single-joint exercise: good for targeting specific muscle groups, but require reduced amount of skill and involvement
Unilateral vs bilateral training...
"Unilateral and bilateral single- and multi-joint exercises should be included... with emphasis on multiple-joint exercises for maximizing strength in novice, intermediate, and advanced individuals." - ACSM
Free weights vs machines
safer, easier to learn
variety of movements
less neural activation
intra- and intermuscular coordination that mimics real-life task requirements
difficult to learn, more dangerous
Free weight training - greater improvement in free weight testing

Machine training - greater improvement in machine testing
*choice should be based on capability, familiarity, and objectives
"For novice and intermediate training, it is recommended that free-weight and machine exercises are included."

"For advanced resistance training, it is recommended that emphasis be placed on free-weight exercises with machine exercises used to compliment program needs." - ACSM
Exercise Order
affects acute strength, which over time will affect chronic strength gains
it is beneficial for muscle force and power to exercise antagonistic muscles, but force and power are reduced if these exercises are done consecutively
multi-joint exercise performance declines the later it is performed
performing multi-joint exercises early in a workout may be necessary for optimal strength gains
*** and don't forget about safety...
For novice, intermediate, and advanced individuals:
large muscle exercises before small muscle exercises
multi-joint before single-joint exercises
high-intensity before low-intensity exercises
rotate between upper and lower body exercises or between agonist/antagonist groups
-ACSM
Rest Periods
acute performance may be compromised by shorter rest intervals
less decrease in performance with 3-5 min rest compared to 30 sec to 2 min rest
greater long term strength increases when longer rest periods are used
rest period length is based on the intensity and complexity of the task
"For novice, intermediate, and advanced training, it is recommended that rest periods of at least 2-3 min be used for core exercises using heavier loads (those exercises included to improve maximal strength...)
For assistance exercises... a shorter rest period of 1-2 min may suffice." -ACSM
Velocity of muscle action
Affects the neural, hypertrophic, and metabolic responses to resistance exercise
unintentional vs intentional slow velocity
lower force
less neural activation
less energy expenditure
limited motor unit activity
*may not provide adequate stimulus for greatest strength gains
Moderate-to-fast velocity are more effective for increasing the rate of strength gains
"For untrained individuals, it is recommended that slow and moderate velocities be used."
"For intermediate training, it is recommended that moderate velocity be used for resistance training."
"For advanced training, the inclusion of a continuum of velocities from unintentionally slow to fast velocities is recommended... the intent should be to maximize the velocity of the CON muscle action." -ACSM
the intent to move the weight as fast as possible is what is critical for maximal strength gains
Frequency
it depends!
2-3 alternating days per week is sufficient for strength gains in untrained individuals
1-2 days per week is enough to maintain strength in previously trained people
overall, the evidence suggests that 3 days per week is best for untrained people
"It is recommended that novice individuals train the entire body 2-3 days per week."
"It is recommended that for progression to intermediate training, a frequency of 3-4 days per week be used (3 if using total-body workout, 4 if using a split routine...)
"It is recommended that advanced lifters train 4-6 days per week..." - ACSM
Muscle Action
Concentric
muscle shortening
Isometric
no change in muscle length
Eccentric
muscle lengthening
"For progression during resistance training for novice, intermediate, and advanced individuals, it is recommended that concentric, eccentric, and isometric muscle actions be included." - ACSM
forces within the muscle are greater than the resistance force
contractile force is equal to the resistance force
force within the muscle is less than the resistance force
selective recruitment
increased muscle damage
POWER
Exercise selection and order
Power
for
using total-body (multi-joint) exercises require rapid force production
plus, high-velocity power exercises can improve subsequent multi-joint exercise performance
postactivation potentiation
it's recommended that the most complex exercises be done first
"The use of predominantly multi-joint exercises performed with sequencing guidelines similar to strength training is recommended for novice, intermediate, and advanced power training"
-ACSM
Loading, volume, and rep velocity
Power
for
a range of loading strategies is required, depending on the type of exercise
Ballistic exercises
traditional lifts - 30-70% of 1RM
Olympic lifts - 70-80% of 1RM
force-velocity curve
emphasize intensity that matches demands of sport/task
15-50% for upper body
0-60% for lower body
"It is recommended that concurrent to a typical strength training program, a power component is incorporated consisting of one to three sets per exercise using light to moderate loading (30-60% of 1RM for upper body, 0-60% of 1RM for lower body) for 3 to 6 reps."
"Heavy loading (85-100% of 1RM) is necessary for increasing force... light to moderate loading is necessary for increasing fast force production... recommend a multi-set power program be incorporated into a strength training program."
-ACSM
Rest periods
Power
for
long rest periods are critical
correct technique
maintain correct intensity
"Rest periods of at least 2-3 min between sets for core exercises"
-ACSM
Frequency
Power
for
power training is typically incorporated into a strength training program because they are related
frequency recommendations are the same as for strength training
Loading
Usually based on a percentage of 1 RM
Loads of only 45-50% of 1 RM have been shown to increase strength in untrained people
Loads of at least 80% of 1 RM are necessary for strength improvements in trained individuals
For long term progression, variations in load are necessary (periodization)
"It is recommended that novice to intermediate individuals train with loads corresponding to 60-70% of 1 RM for 8-12 repetitions and advanced individuals cycle training loads of 80-100% of 1 RM to maximize muscular strength." - ACSM
"For progression... it is recommended that a 2-10% (lower % for small muscle mass, higher % for large muscle mass exercises) increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number on two consecutive training sessions." - ACSM
Loading
Usually based on a percentage of 1 RM
Loads of only 45-50% of 1 RM have been shown to increase strength in untrained people
Loads of at least 80% of 1 RM are necessary for strength improvements in trained individuals
For long term progression, variations in load are necessary (periodization)
"It is recommended that novice to intermediate individuals train with loads corresponding to 60-70% of 1 RM for 8-12 repetitions and advanced individuals cycle training loads of 80-100% of 1 RM to maximize muscular strength." - ACSM
"For progression... it is recommended that a 2-10% (lower % for small muscle mass, higher % for large muscle mass exercises) increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number on two consecutive training sessions." - ACSM
Exercise selection
Free weights vs. machines
Exercise order
Rest Periods
Velocity of muscle action
Frequency
Muscle action
ENDURANCE
Exercise selection and order
Endurance
for
multiple/large muscle group exercises elicit greatest metabolic response
important stimulus for LME
sequencing is not as important, because fatigue is a necessary component
"Unilateral, bilateral, multi-joint, single-joint, with various sequencing combinations for novice, intermediate, and advanced LME training."
-ACSM
Loading and volume
Endurance
for
multidimensional
light loads with higher reps
heavy loads, low reps, but short rest
High-volume is important for maximal LME development
"For novice and intermediate training, it is recommended that relatively light loads be used."
"For advanced training... various loading strategies for multiple sets of 10-25 reps or more... higher volume using lighter intensities."
-ACSM
Rest periods
Endurance
for
minimal rest is critical
high volume, short rest
circuit training
"Short rest periods should be used, e.g. 1-2 min for high-rep sets, and less than 1 min for moderate-rep sets."
"For circuit training... rest periods correspond to the time needed to get from one station to the next."
-ACSM
Frequency
Endurance
for
no different from strength or power training
Velocity
Endurance
for
Fast velocity better than slow velocity for LME for isokinetic training
both slow and fast are effective in dynamic constant exercises
2 effective strategies
1. moderate reps using intentionally slow velocity
2. high reps at moderate to fast velocity
balance between speed of reps and number of reps performed
"Intentionally slow velocities used when moderate reps (10-15) are used. Moderate to fast velocities are more effective for increasing rep number than slow velocity. If performing a large number of reps (15-25+), then moderate to fast velocities are recommended."
-ACSM
STRENGTH
HYPERTROPHY
POWER
ENDURANCE
Loading
&
Volume

Exercise
Selection & Order

Rest Periods
Repetition Velocity
Muscle action
Frequency
All three
Concentric (shortening)
Isometric (no change)
Eccentric (lengthening)

Novice - 2-3 days per week
Intermediate - 3-4 days per week
Advanced - 4-6 days per week
Novice & Intermediate
60-70% 1RM, 8-12 reps,
2-3 sets

Advanced
80-100% 1RM, 1-12 reps (emphasis on 1-6 range), multiple sets
systematic variation
Multi-and single-joint
High- and low-intensity
Large & small muscle groups
Unilateral and bilateral
Done 1st and emphasized
2-3 min for core, high-intensity exercises
1-2 min for assistance & complimentary exercises
Novice
slow to moderate
Intermediate
moderate velocity
Advanced
unintentionally slow to fast
Novice and intermediate
70-85% of 1RM, 8-12 reps, 1-3 sets
Advanced
70-100% of 1RM, 1-12 reps, 3-6 sets
(emphasis on 6-12 rep range)
Multi- and single-joint
Free weights and machines
Same sequence as strength training
Novice and intermediate
1-2 min
Advanced
2-3 min for heavily-loaded core
1-2 min otherwise
Novice and intermediate
slow to moderate
Advanced
slow, moderate, and fast
depending on load, reps, & goals
30-60% 1RM for upper body and 0-60% 1 RM for lower body, 3-6 reps, 1-3 sets
incorporated into strength training program
85-100% of 1RM loading for increased force
0-60% of 1RM loading for increased rate of force development
Primarily multi-joint exercises
same order as for strength training
at least 2-3 min between core exercises
1-2 min between assistance exericises
explosive velocity is necessary for max power and increasing rate of force development
Novice and intermediate
relatively light loads for 10-15 reps
Advanced
various loads, 10-25+ reps, high volume, lighter intensity
unilateral & bilateral
multi- & single-joint exercises
various sequencing combinations
1-2 min for high-rep sets (15-20+ reps)
< 1 min for moderate rep sets
intentionally slow velocity when 10-15 reps used
moderate to fast velocities are better for increasing rep #
Moderate to fast velocity when 15-25+ reps used
David J. Elmer
Full transcript