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Supernova

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by

Kellie Joy Cubangbang

on 26 January 2011

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Transcript of Supernova

SUPERNOVA By Kellie Joy Cubangbang What is a
supernova? A supernova is an
exploding star.
It represents the final stage of a stars life. There are 2 different types of supernova. Type 1 Type 11 ASTRONOMY LAB Type 1 * Lacks a hydrogen signature in their light spectra. Originates from white dwarf stars in a close binary system. White Dwarf stars are dead stars where the core is made of mostly carbon and oxygen. Type 11 * Have a signature of hydrogen in their spectra. TYPE 1 Type 1b & 1c: Undergoes core-collapse just as type 2 supernovas. But they lose most of their outer hydrogen envelopes. TYPE
11 Type 2-L: Declines steadily after the explosion.
Type 2-P: Light stays steady before diminishing. Effects of Supernova: Energy from the explosion can create new elements, particulary those heavier than iron. The gamma rays from the explosion gives off a chemical reaction in the upper atmosphere of the earth.
Converts the ozone into nitrous oxide.
Exposes the Earth's surface to harmful solar and cosmic radiation. Near Earth Supernovae: 1572 & 1604 - Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler discovered a bright supernova occuring in the Milky Way. 1054 - Chinese have records of a supernova in the Taurus Constelation. How to name a supernova: 1.) SN
2.) Year of Supenova
3.) Order by Alphabet
4.) Location eg. SN 1998D (galaxy NGC 5440) THE BRIGHTEST SUPERNOVA EVER SN 2006gy Galaxy NGC 1260 240 million light years away 150 times greater than our sun February 23, 1987 SN 1987A Southern Hemisphere Brightest since Kepler's SN 1993J Galaxy Messier 81 Northern Hemisphere 10 year-old: Kathryn Aurora Gray SN 2010It
Galaxy UGC 3378
240 million light years away THE END CRAB SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION
Created the Crab Nebula
First observed in the Western World
by John Bevis
Recorded by Chinese and Arab atronomers in1054 If the video did not play,
click this link: http://www.maniacworld.com/Crab-Supernova-Explosion.html -Originates in a binary star system (2 stars orbiting each other)
-There are 2 stars approximately the same size
-At a certain time, each star will expand into a red giant, then turn into a white dwarf -Most of the heat a star generates comes from nuclear reaction in its core.
-When the high pressure and temperature within the star causes hydrogen atoms to fuse together to form helium atoms, the reactions are triggered.
-The star runs out of hydrogen and its core begins to contract and its outer layers expand.
-Becoming a red giant. -Its core contracts, generating enough heat to fuse its helium atoms into carbon.
-In turn, the nuclear fusion creates other elements (like oxygen).
-Eventually, the radiation generated within the star's core pushes the outer layers of the red giant away.
-The dense core remains becoming a white dwarf. -Eventually, the other star will take its turn evolving into a red giant.
-As its outer layers expand far out from the core, it becomes less dense.
-As it gets closer to the white dwarf, the gaseous material from the red giant feels the gravitational pull from the white dwarf and gets sucked in. -The white dwarf then pulls more and more stellar material into itself.
-When its mass reaches 1.4 solar masses (40% more mass than that of our sun), a runaway nuclear chain reaction causes the entire white dwarf to explode. -The light from the explosion is 15 billion times brighter than the sun.
-The white dwarf is completely obliterated.
-The core of the red giant shoots off into space. -The force of gravity tries to pull all of the stars matter toward the center. However, because there is outward pressure of the heated gas within, the two forces counteract each other, stabilizing the star. -Most of the heat generated by a star comes from nuclear reactions.
-The reactions are triggered when the high pressure and temperature within the star causes (1) hydrogen atoms. They fuse together to form (2) helium atoms. -When the core begins to run out of hydrogen, it begins to contract and generate more heat.
-Helium atoms fuse with one another to form (3) carbon and oxygen atoms.
-Those atoms displace some of the helium from the center -When the reactions exhaust the helium fuel, the core contracts again.
-Heat causes the carbon and oxygen atoms to fuse into (4) neon, magnesium, and oxygen.
-The new atoms displace the lighter atoms. -The neon, magnesium, and oxygen fuse into (5) silicon and sulfur.
-Outward pressure caused by the reactions continue to push against the inward pressure caused by gravity. -The neon, magnesium, and oxygen atoms fuse into (6) iron.
-Each inner layer contains heavier elements. -No more fusions can release enough energy to sustain reactions. Therefore, nuclear fusion stops.
-Because there is no force to counteract gravity, the huge iron core collapses within a fraction of a second. -When the core can no longer be compressed, it collapses.
-It then rebonds, moving outward, accompanied by a shockwave. -The shock wave moves through the star's layers and creates an explosion.
-The outer layers are blown away from the star at a speed of about 10,000 miles/second.
-The intense heat produces elements heavier than iron.
-What remains is an exceedingly dense, rapidly spinning core.
-The compression combined the core's negatively charged electrons with positively charged protons to form neutrons.
-A neutron star is all that remains.
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