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Greek Philosophy

9th Grade World History
by

Jessica Monge

on 20 October 2014

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Transcript of Greek Philosophy

Greek philosophers laid the foundations for new disciplines such as history, biology, logic & political science.
Greek Philosophy
Sophists
Socrates
Plato
Aristotle
What is philosophy?
Philosophy: the study of knowledge, reality and existence
Professional teachers ("knowers")
Beliefs:
Gods did NOT influence human behavior
"Man is the measure of all things"
"Truth is different for each person"
Goal = teach students to win political arguments & become successful
Born in Athens & worked as a sculptor
Taught students how to think
Belief =
absolute truth
(truth cannot be changed)
Main goal = help & encourage students to discover truth
Teaching Techniques
Socratic Method
:
Ask questions & encourage students to discover the answer
Opposed students' answer by giving a clear, logical argument
Benefits:
Forced students to defend their answers
Improved thought process
Reactions to Socrates
Accused of corrupting the youth with his teachings & not worshiping the gods
Brought to court & put on trial
Verdict = guilty
Sentence = death
Legacy = Plato continued to spread his teachings
Grew up in an aristocratic family
Wanted to work in politics
Became a teacher & opened a school
Legacy = Aristotle promoted his works
Famous Works
School = The Academy
Recorded dialogues & conversations between Socrates & his students
The Republic (book)
Apology: account of Socrates' defense speech
The Republic
Plan for an ideal government & society
Showed dislike for democracy & preference for a militaristic society (like Sparta)
Main ideal = each person should place their service to the community above one's own personal goals
Ideas
Democracy gave people too much freedom
Too much freedom = social disorder
Senses did not provide you with the truth
Reality could be created through ideas that are understood through logical reasoning/thought
Wrote 200+ books on science & political science
Opened a school (Lyceum)
Logical Works
Golden Mean:
living moderately by avoiding extreme actions
Syllogism
= presenting an argument so that a person can determine if the conclusion is logical
Scientific Works
Knowledge CAN be attained from the senses
Physics = book about the physical world's greatest feature, CHANGE
Change = matter taking on a new form
Observed facts & classified them based on similarities & differences
Believed that the Earth = center of the solar system
Political Works
Examined the political structures of each polis
Politics: described the ideal form of government
Ideal = balance of monarchy, aristocracy & democracy
Wanted the middle class to be in power
Full transcript