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Educational Theories and their Implications on Education

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Elizabeth Ioannou

on 12 May 2013

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Transcript of Educational Theories and their Implications on Education

This presentation will demonstrate how present educational practices in the primary division have been influenced by the research of various theorists. Educational Theories and the Educational Journey Present day teaching methods in the primary grade are predominantly influenced by some of histories most influential Educational Theorists. Freud, Vygotsky, Paiget, Dreikurs and Erikson, are among the most popular theorists of their time, and although they have some contradictory views, each has built upon the others work. There is no disputing that all believed that children develop based on very specific stages. It is as a result of these stages that we group students into divisions within schools, ie. the primary division, because although changes in development happen within these stages, it is within these divisions that students are most similar and although there are differences between each grade in the division, in some ways students in each division are very similar. In Erikson's Theory of Development the fourth stage of development begins when students start Kindergarten. He suggests in this stage that teachers should "mildly but firmly coerce children in the adventure of finding out that one can learn to accomplish things which one would never have thought by oneself". The Kindergarten curriculum, in the last 4 years has really shifted away from the idea of themes, towards an inquiry based model, I believe as a direct result of the thinking around educational theories. In the new Kindergarten program students learn about the world around them through inquiries and investigations, teachers provide a framework for within students to work and investigate through hands on activities and the discussions are driven by students questions. Please look at the you tube video for an excellent example of this type of teaching. Topics discussed in class are a direct result of student inquiries. Educators need to observe students and take advantage of "sensitive moments" as Maria Montessori called them, because it is during these moments that a child's mind is most receptive. Kindergarten Age 4-5 The Grade 1 and 2 Learner, Ages 6-7 The Grade 3 Learner, Age 8 Within the school setting parents are seen as partners in education, it is important for parents and teachers to have open lines of communication in order for the student to reach his or her full potential. Students in the primary grades are taught about character traits which will help them to understand how to become model citizens within their school community (ie. respect, empathy, integrity, etc). Teachers also try to foster moral development through Kohlberg's stages of moral development, where they try to have students reach the post-conventional stage, where everything is taken into consideration when making a decision. Furthermore, when students are doing something unfavorable, educators try to take on a authoritative style of discipline, where the teacher talks with the child and gives reasons for the rules, and children are encouraged to share their opinions. The video on the right describes this approach from a parenting perspective and the video on the left demonstrates an example of this type of parenting/discipline style in a real context. Managing Behavior in the Primary Division Educational Theorists And The Primary Education System The grade 1 and 2 learner is in the process of exiting Paigets preoperational stage and entering the concrete operational stage. In the preoperational stage students represent the world with words, images and drawings. Many of the methods teachers use to teach within the grade 1 and 2 classroom typically use pictures and words especially in subjects like math where students still have difficulty with abstract thinking. At the age of 6, students begin to recognize words by sight, are able to carry on understandable conversations and they know right from wrong but continue to require adult support. At the age of 7, students dexterity improves, they begin to understand that there are consequences to their actions and begin to develop the ability to create descriptive and detailed stories. The grade 1 classrooms primary focus is to develop vocabulary and literacy skills, especially in reading; these classrooms are often text rich and a lot of the literacy that is taught is directly related to science and social studies curriculum. The grade 2 classroom, while continuing to focus on literacy skills, begins to help students develop descriptive writing skills and begins to look further than the basic retell that students were previously accustomed to. In both grades students learn best through hands on activities where they can use their abundance of energy, and can experience first, then apply their learning. Students in grade 3 are in the most transition out of all students in the primary division. It is in grade 3, where students begin to question their own identity and struggle both with wanting to act childish and seeking independence. By the age of 8 students reading abilities should be almost fully developed, and they should read with ease and understand what is read. It is for this reason that DRA reading assessment is not continued past grade 3 and why in grade 4 students begin to write CASI which is a comprehension assessment. Furthermore, it is for those reasons that EQAO is also administered in the grade 3 year, students in grade 3 also improve their ability to plan and organize which helps them to navigate the standardized testing process. According to both Paiget and Erikson, it is during the ages of 7-8 where students begin to understand others points of views and learn to think about others. Students in grade 3 have also entered the concrete operational stage, according to Paigets theory; it is in this stage that students begin to learn how to perform operations and logical reasoning begins to replace intuitive thought, this reasoning however needs to be applied to specific examples. In mathematics in grade 3 students begin to use formulas to solve more complex math problems, such as perimeter; furthermore, students also learn to compare and contrast multiple characteristics of objects or ideas (ie. in geometry they compare figures by # of vertices/points, # of sides/edges, and # of faces)
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