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Transcript of Theoretical Foundations
Foundations Definition: Psychological theory that behaviors can be measured and modified Behaviorism
Outside stimuli directs behavior
Reactions are based on an individual's past experiences
Behavior is NOT due to inner psychology States that... All behavior is learned Behaviorism is rooted in two major studies Scientist Ivan Pavlov's dog experiment Conditioned stimulus: Pavlov rang a bell, then gave the dog a treat
Conditioned response: Dog salivated whenever he heard the bell, expecting a treat B.F. Skinner's rat study Principles of Behaviorism are used today to... Shape others' actions Manage classrooms Positive reinforcement like stickers, homework passes, and verbal praise encourages positive behavior
Punishments such as detention and negative phone calls home decrease frequency of unwanted behavior Humans repeat actions that give us results we like
We don't repeat actions that produce negative consequences Cognitive
Processing Humans understand surroundings through Includes two major theories Information processing model Information channeled through... Sight Sound Smell Touch Taste Cognitive Development Theory By Jean Piaget Four Stages of Information Processing Sensorimotor
(Birth-2 years) Preoperational
(2-6 years) Concrete Operational
(6-11 years) Formal Operational
(11 years and older) Senses Imitation Logic Concepts, Arguments,
and Counterarguments Study
(Thinking about how people think) metacognition As demonstrated in... Concept
Maps Visualize relationships between Ideas Images Words Constructivism Includes... Inquiry-based Learning Social
Constructivism Learning by making Creative
Experimentation Construction vs.
Instruction Students construct knowledge based on their social interactions and cultural understanding
Construct reality through activity
Sees learning as a social process “Tell me and I forget.
Teach me and I remember.
Involve me and I learn.”
~Benjamin Franklin For best format, please view in full-screen mode.