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Transcript of DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
In enacting this Act, the Parliament recognises the
(a) that non-violence is a fundamental social value that must be promoted;
(b) that family violence is a fundamental violation of human rights and is unacceptable
in any form;
(c) that family violence is not acceptable in any community or culture;
(d) that, in responding to family violence and promoting the safety of persons who have
experienced family violence, the justice system should treat the views of victims of
family violence with respect.
In enacting this Act, the Parliament also recognises the following features of family violence—
(a) that while anyone can be a victim or perpetrator of family violence, family violence is predominantly
committed by men against women, children and other vulnerable persons;
(b) that children who are exposed to the effects of family violence are particularly vulnerable
and exposure to family violence may have a serious impact on children's current and
future physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing;
(c) that family violence—
(i) affects the entire community; and
(ii) occurs in all areas of society, regardless of location, socioeconomic and health status,
age, culture, gender, sexual identity, ability, ethnicity or religion;
(d) that family violence extends beyond physical and sexual violence and may involve
emotional or psychological abuse and economic abuse;
(e) that family violence may involve overt or subtle exploitation of power imbalances
and may consist of isolated incidents or patterns of abuse over a period of time.
Not come into operation before 1 October 2009
WHAT IS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
CAUSES OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
Domestic violence can be triggered by many situations, commonly from one partner’s need to control the other. This need could come from their own self-esteem issues, their own abuse experiences, difficulty controlling anger, feeling inferior to their partner, emotional or mental issues as well as drug and alcohol related problems. Some studies suggest this behaviour can be caused by situational and individual factors- in other words, the abuser learns this behaviour from their family, friends, people in their community and other cultural influences in their lives. This domination takes the form of emotional, sexual, physical or economic abusive behaviour.
Children who witness domestic violence at home are more likely to be under the impression that violence is the best way to resolve conflicts. Boys who grow up being influenced that women don’t need to be respected or are inferior are also more likely to abuse women when they grow older. Young girls who witness domestic violence are more likely to fall victim to it themselves as they have grown up with this behaviour being “normal”.
Domestic violence does not impact just one minority. It impacts every race, religion, social class and gender- Around 500,000 women reported to have experienced some form of emotional, sexual or physical abuse in the past 12 months according to a 2005 Australian Bureau of Statistics study meaning almost everyone will know someone, whether they know it or not, who has experienced domestic violence.
Children are greatly affected by domestic violence. A Journal of Family Psychology study has found that 15.5 million children see domestic violence in their home each year and the long-term effect of this carries long into their adulthood. Children can develop severe anxiety, trust issues, low self-esteem and behavioural problems and can even go on to become abusers themselves.
WHO DOES DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AFFECT?
Any physical or emotional action occurring in any relationship. This relationship is not limited to a romantic one and can include family relationships as well. Domestic violence can occur in a variety of forms, not only physical, but also emotional, sexual and economic violence. Women are more likely to be affected. So far this year, 34 women have died from domestic violence related incidents. Helen Brereton of the Women’s Domestic Violence Court Advocacy Service in NSW believes domestic violence in Australia has become endemic. “We know that domestic violence is the leading cause of death and injury and illness for women in Australia, the statistics have been growing steadily over time as more women are reporting” she said in an interview with ABC news.
Most recent survey was conducted by the ABS in 2005, called the Personal Safety Survey. It was a national survey of adults in Australia over the age of 18. The survey found that:
- Over a million women surveyed have reported to have experienced physical or sexual assault by their male current or ex-partner since the age of 15
- Most cases (64.1%) of physical abuse against women in the prior 12 months to the survey were committed in the home
- 64% of women who experienced physical abuse, and 81% of women who experienced a sexual assault did not report it to police
- 38% of women who experienced physical abuse in the 12 months before the survey reported the perpetrator was a male family member or friend
- 19.1% of women have experienced sexual violence since the age of 15
- 33.3% of women have experienced physical abuse since the age of 15
Domestic Violence is not an exclusively Australian issue.
“Every year millions of women and girls worldwide suffer violence.” (United Nations)
Domestic Violence is responsible for a significant amount of this violence against women.
Recent research has shown that on average 30% of women worldwide have suffered physical or sexual violence from an intimate partner whilst in a relationship.
While 38% of females that have been murdered, were caused by an intimate partner.
Statistics do vary greatly from country to country. 15% of women in Japan have reported physical and/or sexual violence from an intimate partner. Whereas in Ethiopia, the statistics are much higher, with 71% of women reporting acts of domestic violence in a lifetime.
Domestic Violence has gained a great increase in attention in Australia in recent years. In many other countries it is still largely ignored. For example, in China, Domestic Violence, is considered a relatively normal aspect of marriage and “a private issue that should be kept within the household” (Tingting, 2013)
These views are shared with many other countries.
In India, where there were over 118,000 reported cases of domestic violence in 2013. Public opinions are beginnning to change. Over the last 10 years reported cases of domestic violence have doubled. It is believed there has not been an increase in assaults, just that more are being reported. (http://bbc.com, 2014)
There is still a long way to go. Lawyer Monika Joshi believes, “the notion of domestic violence is rooted in patriarchy - where women are regarded as inferior to men and abuse of women is widely condoned and beating is often justified.” (bbc.com, 2014).
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE GLOBALLY
Twenty years ago, there were few legal remedies for victims of family violence in Victoria and, despite its prevalence,
family violence remained a largely hidden problem. Our institutions often failed to protect or properly support
victims of family violence. The legal response to family violence was inadequate because its particular dynamics and
effects were not well understood. Primarily, family violence was identified as physical assault. Other forms of violence,such as property damage, sexual assault, social abuse (restriction of social interaction), psychological or emotional abuse, verbal abuse and economic abuse were infrequently identified as grounds for a legal remedy.
Traditionally, the law was reluctant to intervene in the area of family violence because it occurred in private and was
considered to be beyond its realm.
During the 1970s and 1980s, there were calls for family violence to be recognized and treated as a crime and this influenced policy and justice system reforms in many Western countries, includingAustralia.The focus generated by the women’s movement during the1970s led to the setting up of women’s refuges, and this increased the many pressures for reform placed on the Victorian government leading up to the introduction of the Crimes (Family Violence) Act 1987 (Vic.).
The Act introduced a civil remedy for family violence—the intervention order—but its title also reflected one of the principal
The intervention order system was seen as pioneering legislation that would provide an accessible and free civil
option for the protection of victims of violence. It could be accessed by an individual victim or by the police and,
in theory, protection could be obtained 24 hours a day
However, problems of interpretation, widely varying attitudes of police officers and magistrates, failure to enforce breaches, inadequate training of court staff, and lack of legal advice—to name a few barriers—soon led many victims to believe that an intervention order was “not worth the paper it was written on”.
In short, the legislation was itself a “victim” of mainstream prevailing attitudes and inconsistent approaches.
SUPPORT AND SURVIVAL
Life after Domestic Violence
Life after DV unfortunately takes time and a lot of energy for a victim to re-build.
Firstly they have to gain back their self-esteem and confidence whilst change
numerous other factors to get back to what another person may call
a "normal life" . When it is all victims they say that they most likely to arrange
the simple and practical things such as money, car, house and even a new school
for children, while forgetting to look after themselves.
During this time the victim may also begin to think that in fact the abuser
has stopped harassing them and that it is all going to be fine straight away.
However recovery is long and damage can stay with them for along time.
It may make one feel isolated, lonely/alone, scared and even vulnerable.
So it’s all about looking after themselves and seeking help if they need it.
The following government and non-government bodies
allow great support.
After domestic violence one cant expect it all to go back to normal and
just to get over what has happened so to speak.
Government Bodies that support and assist with Domestic Violence:
Domestic Violence Resource Centre of Victoria (DVRCV):
The domestic violence resource Centre Victoria is a state-wide service based in Melbourne, Victoria.
They are contactable on (03) 9486 9866, Monday- Friday 9am-5pm.
They are a non-profit organisation who is supported by the department of human services.
They provide training, publications, research and other resources to those who have or are still experiencing domestic violence.
In addition to this they also offer training courses for professionals to continue to improve their skills
in supporting those who suffer from domestic violence.
Their primary focus is on women and children who are experiencing domestic violence.
They also want to work with all that want to eliminate violence against women and children.
In addition be the voice for the prevention and elimination of violence against women and children,
by overall providing a state-wide instant response that informs, protects and connects women and children.
They offer toll free, 24/7 Family Violence response on 1800 015 188, however if you or anyone you know
is in immediate danger call 000.
They also offer a no cost, range of services to women and their children living with violence, such
as safe house accommodation and refuge accommodation.
Finally they also work closely alongside the Royal Commission in Family Violence run by the Victorian Police.
Reachout.com is Australia’s leading online youth mental health service, providing help to everyone when
and where everyone needs it.
Reach.com by the inspire foundation was started in 1996 in direct response to Australia’s
growing suicide rates..
They are a non- for profit organisation, who are based in Sydney but provide services nationally.
They provide numerous services available for people who suffer from domestic violence in Australia.
However, If someone you know is in immediate danger call 000 immediately.
There are many help services available in Australia.
One particular number regardless of what state or territory people live is 1800 RESPECT or
1800 737 732.
The following Domestic Violence numbers are a gateway to the many other non-government and
government services that are available to put people in touch with the right service.
They are all 24/7 allowing support to be accessed regardless of the time.
1800 RESPECT or 1800 737 732-
The National Sexual Assault, Family & Domestic Violence Counselling Line is a free telephone and online confidential service for any Australian who is experiencing or who has experienced violence. Either domestic,family violence and/or sexual assault.
It is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Translating and Interpreting Service -
National Call 13 14 50 and ask them to contact 1800 RESPECT
National Relay Service-
(for callers who are deaf or have a hearing/ speech impairment)
TTY/Voice Calls -
phone 133 677 and ask them to contact 1800 RESPECT or 1800 737 732
Speak and Listen -
phone 1300 555 727 and ask them to contact 1800 RESPECT
Internet relay users -
visit the National Relay Service website and ask them to contact 1800 RESPECT
or 1800 737 732
Why is DV an issue?
Domestic Violence (DV) is a significant issue within our community.
It is sadly the most common factor contributing to homelessness amongst women and their children.
They are forced out of their homes to escape from the violent behaviour. Sadly as a result upsetting and
disturbing their own social support networks but also their children’s schooling and social networks.
Research also shows that women who experience domestic violence or who have lived with a violent
partner are more likely to experience financial hardship. Unfortunately it is also exceeding street crime
as the fastest growing form of assault.
Furthermore the cost of DV in 2008-2009 was estimated to be around $13.6 billion dollars in the
Australian economy and it is said that if no action is taken by 2021-2022 it will cost the Australian
economy around $15.6 billion dollars.
In addition it’s an issue as it develops a range of health problems and is the single biggest health
risk to Australian women aged 15-44.
Finally another factor that unfortunately assists in making it a bigger issue is the attitude of the
population towards violence.
Domestic Violence Crisis Service ACT
02 6280 0900
Domestic Violence Line
1800 65 64 63
DV Connect Women’s Line 1800 811 811
Women’s Domestic Violence Crisis Service
1800 015 188 or 03 9322 3555
Women’s Domestic Violence Helpline
08 9223 1188 or 1800 007 339
Domestic Violence Crisis Service
1300 782 200
Domestic Violence and Aboriginal Family Violence Gateway Service
(including Domestic Violence Help Line)
1800 800 098
Family Violence Response Referral line
1800 633 937
08 8945 1388
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN CHINA
(All-China Women’s Federation, 2009).
(The Hindu, 2013)
Penalties for Offenders
The maximum penalty is a fine of 500 penalty units ($50,000) or a term of imprisonment
of 5 years or both: s 90 of the ACT Act.
The maximum penalty is a term of imprisonment of 2 years or 50 penalty units ($5,500)
or both: s 14 of the NSW Act.63
A first offence carries a maximum penalty of 1 year imprisonment or 40 penalty units
($4,000), with 2 years for third and subsequent offences within a period of 3 years: s 80
of the Queensland Act.
The maximum penalty is 400 penalty units ($44,000) or a term of imprisonment of
2 years: ss 121-2 of the NT Act.64
The maximum penalty is a $6000 fine or a term of imprisonment of 2 years or both:
s 61 of the WA Act.
The maximum term of imprisonment is 2 years: s 15 of the SA Act.65
The maximum penalty is a term of imprisonment of 2 years or 240 penalty units
($27,220.80) or both: ss 123 and 37 of the Victorian Act.
The Tasmanian Act provides for a tier of penalties from a maximum of 1 year or
a fine of 20 penalty units ($2,400) for a first offence, to 5 years for a fourth or subsequent
offence: see s 35 of the Tasmanian Act.
Australian Government publication (2009)
Australian Government publication (2009)
Victorian Government Legisation (2008)
Department of Social Services (2009)
This Prezi presentation is on the overall topic of Domestic Violence (DV). This presentation looks at firstly Domestic Violence as a whole. This section was includes what is Domestic Violence, causes of DV, who if effected and even the statistics. The next section is laws that govern Domestic Violence. This incorporates the first legislation in place around DV, changes in laws, what is the overall law in place when it comes to Domestic Violence and finally the penalties in place. The next section involves how it is reported through the media. Furthermore the next section involves the international views on Domestic Violence alongside statistics. Finally the last section involves the support provided for all those who suffer Domestic Violence. In addition how people best survive after the domestic violence has sadly occurred.
In conclusion Domestic Violence is seen as any physical or emotional which occurs in any relationship. This relationship isn’t just one which occurs romantically, but can also include a family relationship. This is a worldwide issue that is clearly not exclusive to just Australia. People’s opinions on Domestic Violence are changing but it is a long slow process. The laws covering Domestic Violence will probably never perfect. The law does not stop Domestic Violence despite the strictness of the law or the harshness of the penalties. Only people can stop Domestic Violence. However there is a Royal Commission being currently conducted into how to improve the family Violence Laws in Victoria.
ABC New s 2015
Australian Government Publication (2009)
Chadwick. H and Morgan. A (2009). Key issues in Domestic Violence- Australian Institute of Criminology. Retrieved from http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/rip/1-10/07.html
Commonwealth of Australia (2014). Parliament of Australia- Domestic, family and sexual violence in Australia: an overview of the issues. Retrieved from http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp1415/ViolenceAust
Commonwealth of Australia (2011). Parliament of Australia- Domestic Violence in Australia – an overview of the issues. Retrieved from http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/BN/2011-2012/DVAustralia
Department Of Social Services (2009)
Inspire Foundation, Reachout.com (1998-present). Reachout.com- Domestic Violence Support. Retrieved from http://au.reachout.com/domestic-violence-support
Joyful Heart Foundation
Metzger, M.J. (2007). Making sense of credibility on the Web: Models for evaluating online information and recommendations for future research. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 58(13), 2078-2091
Pandey, G (2014) 100 Women 2014: Violence at home is India's 'failing’. Retrieved May 3, 2015, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-29708612
State Government Victoria (2013). Domestic Violence Resource Centre Victoria (DVRCV). Retrieved from http://www.dvrcv.org.au/welcome-dvrcv
Safe Steps (Present). Safe Steps – Family Violence Response Centre: About Us. Retrieved from http://www.safesteps.org.au/about-us/
Tingtine, C (2013) Breaking Pattern of Silence over Domestic Violence in China. Retrieved May 3, 2015, from http://asiafoundation.org/in-asia/2013/10/30/breaking-pattern-of-silence-over-domestic-violence-in-china/
United Nations. Ending Violence Against Women and Girls. Retrieved May 3, 2015, from http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/briefingpapers/endviol
Victorian Governement Legisation (2008)
Women’s Aid Federation of England. Women’s Aid (until women and children are safe): The Survivor’s Handbook. Retrieved from http://www.womensaid.org.uk/domestic-violence-survivors-handbook.asp?section=000100010008000100360004§ionTitle=Surviving+after+abuse
World Health Organization (2014). Violence against women: Intimate partner and sexual violence against women. Retrieved May 3, 2015, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs239/en/
All-China Women’s Federation (2009). Retrieved on May 3, 2015, from http://dcvolunteerlawyersproject.blogspot.com.au/2013/02/making-advancements-across-globe-first.html
http://www.buzzfeed.com/regajha/chilling-depictions-of-iconic-cartoon-characters-as-victi#.quW4r0ogz - used for pic
The Hindu (2013) Dehradun, India. Retrieved on May 3, 2015, from
World Health Organization (2013) Retrieved on May 3, 2015, from http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/violence/VAW_infographic.pdf
COMPLETED BY TEAM 2
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN INDIA
Using information from reputable websites such as the United Nations (the UN), The World Health Organization (WHO), Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) and Victorian Government Legislation has given our Prezi accuracy and objectivity (Metzger, 2007). These organisations are considered highly important and influential and also lack the commercial intent that many other Organisations employ that may impose on their objectivity.
Another important aspect of credibility is the currency of the information used (Metzger, 2007). Our group made every effort to use up to date information and statistics throughout our research while using a great depth of informational sources to ensure significant coverage of the topic we chose.
Unfortunately, we don’t hear about domestic violence quite as often as we should. It is reported mostly on the News and Television or in Newspapers. Television shows like 60 Minutes and A Current Affair have shown documentaries on people who have experienced Domestic Violence first hand but there is so much more that goes on behind the scenes that we don’t hear about. Unless there are extremely extraordinary circumstances, we tend not to hear about a lot of the cases of Domestic Violence that go on. Once people start reporting one, that means they should report them all and unfortunately there are too many to cover. There is very much a lack of interest and un-awareness of Domestic Violence and just how often it does occur. We are now at the point where on average 2 women a week are getting murdered. Recently, we have been hearing a lot about “The Budget”. Public views on this have been that there isn’t enough being done about Domestic Violence or violence against women. It has had a blind eye turned upon it when it is something so serious that occurs so often, and it is resulting in death.
HOW THE MEDIA REPORTS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE