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Outline

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by

王巧 碧

on 26 January 2017

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Transcript of Outline

Outline
1. Summary of the reading (Wallerstein, 1982)
2. Argument
3. NAM and anti-systemic movements
4. Discussion Questions
Stagnation
-Expansion of production increases profit
-Brings political struggle
-Mercantilist practices
-Revolution
-Anti-systemic movements:
-Russian Revolution in 1917
-Nationalism/Socialism
Anti-systemic movements
From 1960s to 1970s, there was an enormous turmoil for China (cultural revolution).

Since 1950s, NAM, OPEC power flourished, limiting hegemonism
In a capitalist-world system, the endless accumulation implies unequal distribution of consumption and power.
Maximize profit is the principal objective for accumulators

Argument
NAM, G77 are still a relevant platforms for political influence. Their prevailing relevance is a result of continuous contradictions of unequal distribution of wealth and power in the international system.
NAM as counterweight
to hegemonyk

Scientific progress led to hierarchization of space: international division of labor, where economies were integrated to the capitalsit-world system
2) the creation of a polarized world: accumulators and the producers
3) the creation of states with unequal distribution of power and wealth: he called the core, semi-periphery and peripheral countries
4) the burgeoise and the proletariat


Contradictions of the capitalist-system
As long as there is market, states will make decisions about their production to maximize benefits
-The world-economy would shape the political decisions and not in reverse. World supply+States Decisions+Production= bottleneck of accumulation
-There was the misconception that production creates demand, but that was not the case.

-Only redistribution of surplus would create demand, but that would also imply a less profits.

Economic expansion is self-destructive
-On the supply side: producers have to find new markets, new customers, new products or new ways to reduce cost production
-Demand side= lowers purcahasing power

Adjustments
World economy is organized in: Core, semiperiphery and periphery
a)producers go bankrupt and reduce world supply
b) increase captial intensity
c)relocate production where there are lower wages
d) move towards new paths with major technological innovation and creation of leading industries in core zones

e) ceaseless accumulation and redistribution of surplus involves diminution of PROFIT
Contradiction 3
Greater accumulators need an even larger stratum of its kind to keep the system profitable
Contradiction 2
Achieving a world-systemic power by achieving and strengthening state power in weak states
-The superstructure that is put in place will seek toy maximize the free flow of factors of production, which results in inequalities
1967 onwards
Characterized by a cyclical downturn or stagnation of the world economy
-Overproducition was a consequence of steady growth since 1945 (US, Western Europe, and Japan).


-By the 60s, US could no loger outsell to Western Europe and Japan-But, US was still stronger than these countries, so negotiated with them as partners.
American decline?
-From 1945-67, dominant forces perceived in the US as the "American Century"
-There was a hierarchy, but the US shared the optimism with Western Europe and Japan.
-The Soviet Union was strengthened by its military power
-Anti-systemic peripheral forces continued to succeed, dragging the local burgeoise.
Non-Aligned movement

-19 head of states of newly decolonized nations came together in Bandung in 1955 in search of unity against imperialism and colonialism

-The worked together with revolutionary leaders in other countries to help them achieve their own independence and liberation from Western colonizers.

-In the 1990s The NAM underwent through a crisis along with fall of the Soviet Union and the supremacy of US after the Cold War

Foundation and principles
1. At Its Core NAM Is Anti-Imperialist
2. Against Apartheid
3. Disarmament
4. Anti colonialism and also against form of neo-colonialism
5. Democratization of the International Relations
NAM and OPEC
-The oil embargo of 1967 showed commodity power and some political heft.
-In the midst of the financial crisis of the 1970s, the NAM mooted the idea of the New International Economic Order (NIEO).
-Henry Kissinger sought to break the political link between NAM and oil producing states and poorer African countries.
New World Order
A new world order emerged after the 1980s.
It was nt run by NIEO and not run by the Third World.
-Characterized by debt crisis in the Third World
-The fall of the Soviet Union
-The prevalence of the IMF, World Bank
-The spread of the Washington Consensus and adjustments for the Third World
Re-emergence of NAM
In 2006, in front of the UN, the Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez could derive and give new meaning to the Non-Alignment.

-This new Non-Alignment referred to American hegemony and neoliberalism
New Financial Architecture
In 2014, the NAM saw a hope on BRICS
-They represented more than a quarter of the Global GDP,
-Holds less than 11 percent of the voting rights in the IMF
-They seemed to be the locomotive of the World Economy and the South
Existing prevalence of old mechanisms
-Human rights cannot only be violated by states: transnational corporations, environmental damage can also violate
-Besides political and civil rights
-Rights to equal access to education, gender equality, poverty reduction
Democratization of the UN
-The 120 members that conform NAM represent two thirds of the members in the UN
-Decisions are reduced to the 5 members of the security council of military power.
Old and new struggles
1. Rejection to Cuba's embargo and occupation of Guantanamo Bay
2. Occupation of the Israel in Palestine
3. They defend sovereignty of the nations
Conclusion
1. In conclusion, the NAM represents a great number of countries of the third world, but they don't concentrate the majority of the economic and military power.
2. An economic locomotive that is not aligned to US hegemonism could propose a New Financial Architecture
3. NAM, G77 wouldn't exist if the United Nations or, the international system would be equal and would not highlight the global asymmetries in the XXI century.

1. Is it possible to have an economic locomotive in the world economy that is not aligned to Western hegemony?
2.Does economic stagnation affect more the US, Western Europe or the developing countries?
3. Are we heading to a multipolar world? What challenges are we facing?
Discussion Questions
What happened with OPEC?
OPEC runs the risk of falling apart over differences on market strategy.
OPEC and non-OPEC oil producers countries agreed on slashing oil production by 1.2 million barrels per day tos stabilize market prices.
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