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Ancient Greek

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Kelly Ching

on 17 October 2013

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Transcript of Ancient Greek

Aristotle's "On the Soul"
Ancient Greeks: Consciousness
Background
Oracles
A person through whom the gods spoke to, located in shrines where people can ask questions, a message from the oracle
Oracle's prophecies were created based on dreams
A person (usually a priestess) went into a trance or became possessed by the Gods, and uttered prophetic words; these words were interpreted by the priests
Most famous was Oracle at Delphi
Temple of Epidaurus
Pilgrims traveled to the Temple of Epidaurus for healing sleep. When they got to the temple a priest would bless them. The patient would be put into a trance and stay over night at the temple. During the night they would be visited by Asclepius, the greek god of medicine, in a dream. Then the priest would interpret the dreams and prescribe a treatment.
Pythia Gases
In the Temple of Apollo, the priestess Pythia was the Oracle of Delphi. Pythia was the most important oracle in Greece, and many people went to her. She would inhale gases and go into a trance, then she would recite people's prophesies that were inspired by Apollo.
What is Ancient Greek Consciousness?
An important part of ancient Greek culture were the mystery cults, into which many Greek philosophers were initiated. These cults developed impressive rituals that involved fasting, purification, song and dance, the use of mythology, and poetry. Most characteristic to Greek consciousness were the oracles.
About Aristotle
Greek philosopher who was a student of Plato
Believed that human beings are capable of achieving the pure form of wisdom only during sleep, when our minds are liberated
Believed that all organisms strive for self-fulfillment and that this strive is the ultimate reality of the body
Believed there were three kinds of souls:
vegetative
,
sensitive
, and
rational
souls
Plants had a
vegetative soul
: responsible for reproduction and growth
Animals had a
vegetative
and
sensitive soul
, responsible for mobility and sensation
Humans had a
vegetative
,
sensitive
, and
rational soul
, which was used for thought and reflection
When? 800-146 B.C.E.
Where? The territories of Greece were scattered with mountains everywhere, and thus this natural geography separated the different city-states. However, the culture and philosophy remained relatively similar within all.
Time & Place
Many Greeks recognized the major gods and goddesses that are to this day, very popular amongst culture. Although the different city-states worshiped the same deities, most of them were separated by following a certain god characteristic to their environment.
Gods
Dreams
Dreams were seen in a religious context
They were believed to be direct messages from the gods or the dead
Soul had the capability of leaving the body during sleep
Ancient Greek system of dream interpretation was not concerned only with predicting the future; it was also used to ensure prosperity in one's life.
Greek Philosophers
Aristotle
Known as the founder of Atomism, the belief that the universe is made up of an infinite number and a variety of atoms. According to him, he believed that all object emit a stream of eidola, fast-moving films of atoms, he believed that it was responsible for dreams. The eidola penetrates the body through the pores and when they come up again it causes people to see things in their sleep.
384 BC – 322 BC
Ancient Greece was the birthplace of Western civilization about 4,000 years ago. Ancient Greece produced many magnificent achievements in areas of government, science, philosophy and the arts that still influence our lives.
God of dreams and sleep
He has the ability to take any human form and appear in one's dreams
Morphine was named after Morpheus
Morpheus
Democritus
Plato
"Love is composed of a single soul inhabiting two bodies."
Plato had many different types of theories for dreams. One is a reference to the Gates of Horns and Ivory. The other is how sleep and dreams are related to visions. Another one is that when everyone dreams we express feelings that we usually repress when awake.
Full transcript