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Teaching Literacy to EAL/D Students

Current Challenges and Best Strategies

Yasi Shayeste

on 29 October 2012

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Transcript of Teaching Literacy to EAL/D Students

Yasi Teaching Literacy to EAL/D students

http://www.koodakan.org/story/StoryKids/sk038.htm Interest in differing cultures Why we chose the topic…

*ESL teachers first appointed in Australia in the late 1970s

*Pedagogy similar to how many of use learnt foreign languages

*In the 80s students placed in class with same age peers

*ESL students continued to struggle

*ESL programs looked quite different from classroom teacher’s program

*ESL gradually integrated into mainstream curriculum

*Policies developed in late 80s - 90s which constitute the framework of what exists today History Challenge #1 Introduction How do EAL students feel in mainstream classrooms? How do we engage students from different cultures? How can we use families and communities to enhance child literacy teaching? What are the issues /considerations/ challenges that we/students from EAL/D backgrounds will face in learning literacy? Seen in classroom done poorly Lack of knowledge and experience Personal experience "You need literacy to all aspects of life if you are to contribute to society" The learning community being unaware of cultural differences of one another Challenge of learning a new culture Learning a New Culture Acculturation – become part of a new culture while maintaining native culture. Ensure they don’t forget their own cultural background Be aware of the emotional impact on the student Safe and supportive environment Bring their culture into the classroom Encourage strong peer relationships One expression can mean the complete opposite in one culture as it does in another Hand and Facial Expressions Differ from culture to culture Need to be conscious when using these types of expressions Making connections between children and their families is a way to make the curriculum meaningful for children, and finding out about their community knowledge is crucial, especially for EAL/D students (Hill, 2006). Funds of Knowledge Activities/lessons to gather students’ funds of knowledge Using Authentic Learning Tasks Having a cultural schema - another way to think about cultural context.
reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking develop in an integrated manner
language and thought are socially constructed
language learning proceeds best when children use language for meaningful purposes
meaningful language use is influenced by an individual’s prior experience, culture, motivation, and goals
learning happens best when children are encouraged to take risks, experiment, and make mistakes
modeling and scaffolding are critical to successful language learning Parents Education
Parents create barrier at home
Adult language classes
Participating in children learning
Home visits to eliminate barriers Community Influence Service Learning
a teaching method that seeks to enrich learning by engaging students in meaningful service to their schools and communities  Case Study
Rural school district in central Nebraska with an extensive ESL population What can I do in my Classroom? Select culturally relevant classroom resources.
Provide opportunities for students to share their own cultural traditions and beliefs.
Understand the importance of promoting equity, rather than equality.
Establish a routine for welcoming newcomers.
Know how to pronounce their names, and ensure that the students do as well.
Have students seated with first-language peers initially.
Design classroom learning activities that encourage students to get to know one another.
Ensure that classroom displays are inclusive of all classroom cultures.
Inform yourself about the student’s culture.
When interacting with students, be aware of deep culture and how it may play a role in student behaviour. Literacy underpins education Challenge #2 How can we differentiate and assess the level of support that English as an additional language students need when the majority of assessment is reliant on one’s literacy ability? Alternative assessments generally meet the following criteria: Alternative Assessments

It is said that students with a weaker vocabulary, such as students with English as an additional language will inhibit the students’ ability to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding (W. Cajkler and B. Hall 2009, p.155) .

There is a shift from seeing learning in a second language from a deficit perspective, towards a focus on providing equal opportunities in the mainstream (p.153) . Some information Focus is on documenting individual student growth over time, rather than comparing students with one another.
Emphasis is on students' strengths (what they know), rather than weaknesses (what they don't know).
Consideration is given to the learning styles, language proficiencies, cultural and educational backgrounds, and grade levels of students (Tannenbaum, J 1997, p.1). Use visual cues as much as possible - probing questions that guide students to compare, explain, describe, analyse and hypothesise

Performance-based assessments including interviews, oral reports, role plays, describing, explaining, summarising, retelling, paraphrasing stories or text material (Tannenbaum, J 1997, p.2).

The teacher can guide students through a pre-writing stage, which includes discussion, brainstorming, webbing, outlining, and so on. The results of pre-writing, as well as the independently written product, can be assessed (p.2). Examples Literacy challenge level is different for EAL students depend on how much their native language differ from English. Challenge #3 Arabic
Speakers tend to have difficulty pronouncing the letter /p/.
have trouble distinguishing between /r/ and /w/
French speakers have difficulty with /h/ and systematically delete it, as most French dialects don't have this sound.
Hungarian/Russian/ Persian
The dental fricatives /th/ may be replaced by [s] and [d] and native Russian speakers may pronounce them as [s] and [z].
Since these languages lack /w/, many speakers substitute /v/ for /w/ when speaking in English. Examples:
-Native speakers of Japanese have difficulty distinguishing
/r/ and /l/.
- /b/ is likely to be confused with /p/
- /d/ is likely to be confused with /t/
-/v/ is likely to be confused with /b/ or /p/
- /ʃsh/ is likely to be omitted www.decd.sa.gov.au/literacy/files/links/Strategies1.doc
http://www.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/teachingresources/esl/teachstrat.htm Other recommendations… Speech therapy
Audio Book
Online Program Recommendation: References Cajkler, W & Hall, B 2009, ‘When they first come in what do you do?’ English as an additional language and newly qualified teachers’, Language and Education, vol.23, no.2, pp.153–170.

Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) 2009, ESL in Schools, retrieved 19th September 2012, <http://www.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/programs/esl/eslreporting.htm>.
Hallé, Pierre A.; Best, Catherine T.; Levitt, Andrea; Andrea (1999), "Phonetic vs. phonological influences on French listeners' perception of American English approximants", Journal of Phonetics vol 27, no 3, pp 281–306
Hill, S 2006, Developing early literacy: assessment and teaching, Eleanor Curtain Publishing, Prahran.
Hwa-Froelich, Deborah; Hodson, Barbara W; Edwards, Harold T (2003), "Characteristics of Vietnamese Phonology", American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology vol11, no3, pp 264–273
Goto, Hiromu (1971), "Auditory perception by normal Japanese of the sounds "l" and "r", Neuropsychologia , vol9, no 3,pp 317–323
McLaughlin-Phillips, K 2010, Understanding ESL learners: moving toward cultural responsiveness- a guide for teachers, English as a Second Language Council of the Alberta Teachers’ Association, vol. 6, pp. 1-6, retrieved 1 October 2012, http://www.teachers.ab.ca/SiteCollectionDocuments/ATA/Publications/Specialist-Councils/ESL-3-6%20Moving%20Toward%20Cultural%20Responsiveness.pdf
Paradis, Carole; LaCharité, Darlene (2001), "Guttural deletion in loanwords", Phonology vol18, no 2, pp 255–300
Russel, N 2007, ‘Teaching more than English: connecting ESL students to their community through services learning’, Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 88, no. 10, pp. 770-771, retrieved 1 October 2012, EBSCOHost Database.
Shoebottom, P 2012, ESL students and culture shock, Frankfurt International School, retrieved 1 October 2012, http://esl.fis.edu/parents/advice/shock.htm
Tannenbaum, J 1997, Practical Ideas on Alternative Assessment for ESL Students, ERIC Digest, < http://www.ericdigests.org/1997-1/esl.html>. ‘Literacy is, in reality, the cornerstone of student achievement, for any student in any grade.’
*In 2010 123, 474 students in Victorian government schools were identified as coming from language backgrounds other than English (22.8%)

*Students come from nearly 200 different language backgrounds throughout the world

*43, 504 of these students met criteria for ESL Index funding (35.2%) Facts and figures Wise, B 2009, 'Adolescent Literacy: The Cornerstone of Student Success', Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52, 5, pp. 369-375, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 25 September 2012. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/3414.0main+features122011%20%28Edition%202%29 Retrieved September 27 2012 Department of Employment, Education and Training (DEET). 1991. Australia’s Language:
The Australian Language and Literacy Policy. Canberra: Australian Government
Publishing Service.
http://portals.studentnet.edu.au/literacy/uploads/SueB_ESL_article.pdf Retrived September 25 2012 Obviously we could not cover all the challenges that EAL students face in 20 minutes presentation, however we tried to touch the ones that we found really important.
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