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Leprosy

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by

Pedro Acosta

on 3 June 2013

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Transcript of Leprosy

(HANSEN'S DISEASE) LEPROSY BY: PEDRO ACOSTA MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE M. leprae is the bacterium that causes leprosy
Discovered in 1873 by the Norwegian physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen
It was the first bacterium to be identified as causing disease in humans SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Skin lesions that may be faded/discolored
Growths on the skin
Thick, stiff or dry skin
Severe pain
Numbness on affected areas of the skin
Muscle weakness or paralysis (especially in the hands and feet)
Eye problems that may lead to blindness
Enlarged nerves (especially those around the elbow and knee)
A stuffy nose
Nosebleeds
Ulcers on the soles of feet TREATMENT/CURE 6 months to 2 years with a combination of antibiotics
Nerve damage is irreversible
95% of all adults are naturally unable to get the disease M. LEPRAE LIFE CYCLE Nasal secretions containing bateria enter the body
Characterized by bacterial replication inside intracellular vesicles of macrophages, Schwann cells, and endothelial cells (immune system evasion) PREVENTION No available vaccine
Avoid contact with others who have the disease and armadillos RISK OF EXPOSURE BIBLIOGRAPHY As many as 2 million people are permanently disabled by leprosy

Countries where the disease is widespread includes:
Angola
Brazil
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of Congo
Federated States of Micronesia
India
Kiribati
Madagascar
Mozambique
Nepal
Republic of Marshall Islands
United Republic of Tanzania Leprosy was well recognized in the oldest civilizations of China, Egypt, and India
The first known written reference to leprosy appeared in an Egyptian papyrus document written around 1550 BC
It was thought to be a hereditary disease, a curse, or punishment from the gods
During the Middle Ages, those with leprosy were forced to wear special clothing and ring bells to warn others as they walked by
In 1921, the U.S. Public Health Service established the nation’s first leprosarium in Carville, Louisiana
A leprosarium served as an institution for people with leprosy and a hospital for experiments with treatments for leprosy as well as a laboratory to study the organism
In 1941, the discovery of Promin, a sulfone drug, was shown to successfully cure leprosy, but this treatment also involved painful injections
In the 1950s, dapsone pills, pioneered by Dr. R.G. Cochrane at Carville, became the treatment of choice for leprosy
In the 1970s, the first successful multidrug treatment (MDT) regimen for leprosy was developed through drug trials on the island of Malta
MDT is a combination of three drugs: dapsone, rifampicin, and clofazimine HISTORY http://www.cdc.gov/
http://www.webmd.com
http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/sosarafova/Assets/Bio307/aler/lifecycle.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycobacterium_leprae
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/leprosy/understanding/Pages/history.aspx
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