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commercially produced antibiotics by biotechnology

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by

doaa mohamed

on 7 May 2014

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Transcript of commercially produced antibiotics by biotechnology

• Once the process is complete, the antibiotic must be extracted and purified to a crystalline product. This is simpler to achieve if the antibiotic is soluble in organic solvent. Otherwise it must first be removed by ion exchange, adsorption, or chemical precipitation.
steps of the manfacturing process

• Industrial production of b-lactam antibiotics

• cephalosporins
• Carbapenems


• Oxygen concentration, temperature, pH, and nutrient levels must be optimal and are closely monitored and adjusted if necessary. As antibiotics are secondary metabolites, the population size must be controlled very carefully to ensure that maximum yield is obtained before the cells die.


2-Isolation, structure elucidation and antibacterial activity of a new tetramic acid, ascosetin from an Ascomycete using the Staphylococcus aureus fitness test screening method.
3-Cyclic lipodepsipeptides verlamelin A and B, isolated from entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium sp.
4-Neomacquarimicin: a new macquarimicin analog from marine-derived actinomycete
5-Mullinamides A and B, new cyclopeptides produced by the Ruth Mullins coal mine fire isolate Streptomyces sp. RM-27-469
6-Antibacterial α-pyrone derivatives from a mangrove-derived fungus Stemphylium sp. 33231 from the SoutThe latest research papers published online on discovery of antibiotics: April 2, 2014
1-Promomycin, a polyether promoting antibiotic production in Streptomyces spp.h China Sea
7-Two new cyclic against tetrapeptides from deep-sea bacteriumBacillus amyloliquefaciens GAS 00152
8-A recently approved antibacterial is daptomycin, a lipopeptide
produced by Streptomyces roseosporus.
It acts Gram-positivebacteria including vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillinresistant ,Staphylococcusaureus, and penicillin-resistantStreptococcus pneumoniae72. It kills by disrupting plasma membranefunction without penetrating into the cytoplasm.
9-Caspofungin acetate (pneumocandin, L-743,872, MIC 991,
Cancidas), which inhibits cell wall formation via inhibition of -1,3-
glucan synthase, was approved in 2000. It is a parenteral candin type
of antifungal. It is administered as an aerosol for prophylaxis against
Pneumocystis carinii, a major cause of death in HIV patients from
North America and Europe. It is also active against Candida,
Aspergillus, and Histoplasma.


commercially produced antibiotics by biotechnology
• Antibiotics are produced industrially by a process of fermentation, where the source microorganism is grown in large containers (100,000 – 150,000 liters or more) containing a liquid growth medium.
1-starting the culture
2-fermintation
3-Isolation and purification
4-Refining
• Microbial Sources of Antibiotics
• Microorganism • Antibiotic
• Gram +ve rods

• Bacillus subtilis
• Bacillus polymyxa •

• Bacitracin
• Polymyxin
• Actinomycetes

• Streptomyces nodocus
• Streptomycesvenezuelae
• Streptomycesaureofaciens
• Streptomyceserythraeus
• Streptomycesfradiae
• Streptomycesgriseus
• Micromonosporapurpureae •

• Amphotericin B
• Chloramphenicol
• Chlortetracycline & tetracycline
• Erythromycin
• Neomycin
• Streptomycin
• Gentamycin
• Fungi

• Cephalosporiumspp
• Penicilliumgriseofulvum
• Penicilliumnotatum •

• Cephalothin
• Griseofulvin
• Penicillin

Microbial sources of antibiotics
EXAMPLES• CoC:
mmercial production of penicillin OF PRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL ANTIBIOTI
• The most recent antibiotics:
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