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Telecommunications Architecture

This is a overview of the basic Telecommunications Architure

Jon Ellison

on 8 December 2010

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Transcript of Telecommunications Architecture

Telecommunications Architecture What is ICT? • Information technology uses computers, which have become indispensable in modern societies to process data and save time and effort
• Telecommunications technologies include telephones (with fax) and the broadcasting of radio and television, often through satellites
• Networking technologies, of which the best known is the internet, but which has extended to mobile phone technology, Voice Over IP telephony (VOIP), satellite communications, and other forms of communication that are still in their infancy.
The idea that Communications Networks require convergence to support modern society Regulatory Bodies National Regulations
Structure Chart International Regulation There are not many regulations for the global community established just yet. Although they have agreed on a vocabulary and have a few restrictions and policy concerning criminal acts but almost exclusively to the country in focus. ITU Today priority work areas include ensuring the needs of developing countries are taken into account in the development of global ICTs; accessibility; adopting international standards to ensure seamless global communications and interoperability for next generation networks (NGN); building confidence and security in the use of ICTs; emergency communications to develop early warning systems and to provide access to communications during and after disasters and the reduction of the impact of ICTs on climate change as well as create better understanding of how ICTs can mitigate its effects.
source: http://www.itu.int/net/ITU-T/info/Default.aspx FCC Levels of ITC Competition Regulated Local Services
Domestic Fixed LD
Intnational Fixed LD
Wireless Local Loop
Cable Modem
Leased Lines
Fixed Wifi Broadband
Cable TV
Fixed Sat
Mobile Sat
Internet Services
International Gateways ITU The ITU is committed to connecting the world
They have a database thats considered the last stop shop for current regulatory information
Regulatory Knowledge Center(ITU Database)
Data annual surveys fuel data sets from Members
Adapted annually for concurrent data ITU Concerns Digital Divide is Growing
Not every Country Agrees with ITU
Security Hawaii Regulatory PUC Public Utilities Commmission
DCA Division of Consumer Advocacy
Telecom Corps.
Lifeline & Link up information services Baisically Primordial Stages
of a Global Regulatory System Goals to get everyone informed connected
and eliminate the digital divide and promote
fair and healthy telecommunications practice
FCC ICT Convergence Regulation Considers issues concerning private or government control
Improving Efficiency
Predict Future for better Regulation AKA Predictions ITC Regulation Tool Kit Module 1. Regulating the Telecommunications/ICT Sector: Overview
Module 2. Competition and Price Regulation
Module 3. Authorization of Telecommunication/ICT Services
Module 4. Universal Access and Service
Module 5. Radio Spectrum Management
Module 6. Legal and Institutional Framework
Module 7. New Technologies and Impacts on Regulation
New Vocabulary, New Economy, New Regulation ICTs and the Transformational Opportunity and Risks Transition to Next Generation Networks Innovative Technologies and Services Regulatory Sequencing OVERVIEW: Competition Policy and the ICT Sector Regulating For Interconnection New Paradigms: Voice Over IP and IXPS Competition & Price Regulation VOIP Background to the Internet and its development;
An overview of Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP);
Opportunities for arbitrage, that are creating pressures for change to existing regulatory and commercial models;
The implications of VoIP for regulators, and for interconnection;
VoIP over wireless technologies;
International benchmarking of charges for network access; and
Internet Exchange Points (IXPs). Interconnection Pricing for VoIP VoIP Over Wireless Networks Benchmarking Rates for Network Access Table 1: Benchmarking Voice Telephony Call Rates
Nation or State
Local Level
Single Transit
Double Transit

Fixed-to-Fixed EU average 2003 0.80 Euro-cents per MOU [2] 0.75 Euro-cents per MOU 0.63 Euro-cents per MOU
New York 2005 Port rate $2.57 flat rate 0.001147 cents per MOU originating; 0.00111 cents per MOU terminating
Tandem Switching 0.000481 cents and 0.000203 common transport
Hungary 2004 1.85 Euro-cents per MOU 2.4 Euro-cents per MOU 2.76 Euro-cents per MOU
Czech Republic 2004 1.3 1.62 2.06
Japan 2004 1.727 local switching yen per MOU 2.057 yen per MOU
India 2005 0.20 - 1.10 Rupee based on mileage bands
Malaysia 2005 2.6 Sen per MOU 4.8 Sen per MOU 8.43 Sen per MOU

Table 2: Benchmarking Broadband Data Rates

Nation or State
56/64 kilobits per second at 2, 50 and 200 kilometres
1.544/2 megabits per second at 2, 50 and 200 kilometres
155 megabits per second at 2, 50 and 200 kilometres

United Kingdom 2004 229; 460; 583 Euro per month 464; 1691; 3612 Euro per month 11,964; 33,908; 71,795 Euro per month
New York 2004 186; 410; 1009 Euro per month (56 kbps) 488; 1578; 4635 Euro per month (1.544 mbps) n/a
California 2004 88; 233; 689 Euro per month (56 kbps) 360; 1234; 3651 Euro per month (1.544 mbps) n/a
Germany 92; 414; 478 Euro per month 340; 1979; 2504 Euro per month 1600; 7511; 12,161 Euro per month
Hungary 193; 337; 621 Euro per month 702; 2149; 5003 Euro per month 7813; 13,727; 23,868 Euro per month
Japan 655; 1122; 1190 Euro per month 3164; 7301; 9046 Euro per month 9302; 50,583; 122,998 Euro per month
Malaysia 2.6 Sen per MOU 4.8 Sen per MOU 8.43 Sen per MOU
Table from Book
Rates Globally (BenchMarking) Internet Exchange Points Promote ISP PRovision Authorization of Telecommunication/ICT Services
General Authorizations and Open Entry Policies
Individual Licences
Competitive Licensing Fees Authorization Practices & Procedures
Licensing for Convergence and Next Generation Networks Universal Access and Service Universal Access and Service Policy Technologies for Universal Access and Service Radio Spectrum Management Policy Monitoring
Compliance Spectrum Policy Legal and Institutional Framework Technology Trends Market and Regulation 1.Internet
2.Mobile communication
3.Next Generation Access Networks (NGAN)
4.Convergence NGN WiFi Wi-Max IPTV Mobile TV
Why Do We Care About All This? We want to have a future filled with growth and knowledge for all to contribute and have access to. We want to have free and open knowledge without suppression Unlimited Potential Prevent Paid Discrimination Freedom of Speech Stop Internet Abuse Regulate Harmful Acts Protection Privacy Thank You

The End Knowledge Economy Freeconomics Freemiums
Knowledge Kills Knowledge Economics Shift Forecasting Economics Innovations 4 Stages:
Critical Price
Rise Above Critical Mass
Monetize Contributors for Knowledge Economy and growth

Globalization — markets and products are more global.
Information technology, which is related to next three:
Information/Knowledge Intensity — efficient production relies on information and know-how; over 70 per cent of workers- in developed economies are information workers; many factory workers use their heads more than their hands.
New Media – New media increases the production and distribution of knowledge which in turn, results in collective intelligence. Existing knowledge becomes much easier to access as a result of networked data-bases which promote online interaction between users and producers.
Computer networking and Connectivity – developments such as the Internet bring the "global village" ever nearer.
Source: WIkipedia Online Chris Anderson Perspectives http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_economics http://twitter.com/chr1sa
Chris Anderson Twitter Page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_economics Craigs List Forums Perspectives http://www.labs-associados.org/docs/OCDE_TIC.PDF http://dgss.wsu.edu/di/docs/MakingSenseoftheRelationshipbetweenICTandEconomicDevelopment.pdf http://www.ted.com/speakers/chris_anderson_ted.html http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4991.2009.00344.x/full Groups Online Community Cross Subsidy Free the future of a radical price E-Book Report http://www.wired.com/techbiz/it/magazine/17-07/mf_freer Free Audio Book- Free Videos http://www.learnoutloud.com/Free-Audio-Video/Business/Sales-and-Marketing/Free-The-Future-of-a-Radical-Price/31326#listen Free Perspectives from the Book:
history of Free
Internet Free-conomics
Demohgraphics Views
Cross Subsidy
No Free Lunch
Social & Cultural ICT ARCH Evironmental ICT http://www.comminit.com/en/node/210610/307 Digital Divide ICT Sustainability
Environmental Impacts
Environmental Data & Quantitve Analysis
Public, Civil, and Gov Communication Reclaim degraded Environments
Instant Data Smart Clothes, Buildings, Cars, Devices http://www.tiaonline.org/news_events/press_room/press_releases/2010/PR-315_TIA_Goes_Beyond_Green-Washing_With_ICT_Green_Boot_.cfm External Links Smart 2020 report ICT for Energy Efficiency (ICT4EE) http://www.talkstandards.com/eu-ict-policy-an-overview/ http://www.esf.edu/ecn/whatisec.htm http://www.comminit.com/en/node/210610/307 EU ICT Green Policy Sensor Revolution Nano Technolgy Solar Powered Devices www.ictliteracy.info/greenict.htm en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_computing http://aisel.aisnet.org/pacis2007/114/ Links Related ICT Green http://www.envcomm.org/ http://www.uc.edu/cecs/cecs.html http://www.nau.edu/soc/ecrc/ http://aisel.aisnet.org/pacis2007/114/ http://www.loyno.edu/~lucec/ http://www.cook.rutgers.edu/~cec/ http://www.sej.org/ http://www.eecom.org/ http://www.greencom.org/greencom/index.asp http://www.ecoresearch.net/ http://ec.europa.eu/environment/networks/index_en.htm http://www.sircome.fr/spip.php?page=sommaire&lang=en http://www.uni-lueneburg.de/infu/english/index.htm http://www.rtnda.org/resources/ejc.shtml http://www.uwosh.edu/environ_studies/Jobs/communication.html Reduce Data Costs Streamline existing systems Empower Green for a Better Tomorrow! Policy Reform to Green with monitorization and transparency Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Innovate, Micronize, Revolutionize, Hyperefficiency, Renewable Networking Clustering Quantum Computing Atomic Cumputing Wearable
PC's Embedded Chips New Ideas Imagination Breakthroughs Vision & Perception Globalization Perspectives World Initiatives Social Responsibility Unity and Cooperation Super Computing Standardization & Form Factor Fiber Optics Inventing and Creating Open Source
Organic Technolgy Stewart Brand proclaims 4 environmental 'heresies'
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