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History of Instructional Media and Instructional Design

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Jacque Bradford

on 27 May 2015

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Transcript of History of Instructional Media and Instructional Design

1910
1930
2000
1900
1970
History of Instructional Media and Instructional Design
1900s
The "visual instruction" or "visual education" movement

First use of instructional media in school houses via school museums;
first school museum opened in 1905, St. Louis, MO

Keystone View Company published
Visual Education
, a teacher's guide to lantern slides and stereographs (1908)







1910s
1910:
first catalog of instructional films published in the U.S.

Public schools in Rochester, NY begin to adopt films for instructional use

1913:
Thomas Edison, "Books will soon be obsolete in the schools...It is possible to teach every branch of human knowledge wth the motion picture." (Reiser, 2012, p. 18)
1920s - 1930s
The "visual instruction" movement became known as the "audiovisual movement"
Great Depression
: 1929 - late 1930's
1923
: Department of Visual Instruction (DVI) was established by the National Education Assoc. (Torkelson, 1998)
Textbooks written on visual instruction were written, of importance -
Visualizing the Curriculum
1940s
World War II - audiovisual devices used in the military industry;
400+ training films and 600 filmstrips created for training purposes
1941:
Division of Visual Aids for War Training established
Training films used to prepare civilians to work in industry


1950s
The television used for instructional media

Programmed instruction movement:
mid-1950s to mid-1960s
1952:
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) - 242 television channels for educational purposes
1953:
DAVI first publication,
AV Communication Review (Saettler, 1998)
1954:
Skinner,
The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching;
formative evaluation
1950-1960:
Ford Foundation - $170 million on educational t.v. throughout the school system in northeastern states
1957:
Soviet Union launched Sputnik that eventually impacts the instructional design process
U.S. government spent millions of dollars on math and science education
1980s
Computers used as a instructional tool
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) as early as 1950's; IBM
1983:
computers being used for instructional purposes in > 40% of all elementary schools and > 75% of all secondary schools in the U.S.
1990s - 2000s
Internet and social media used for instructional purposes
in
variety of business training and educational settings
2010 survey: > 50% of college faculty used social media for instructional purposes
Distance education in higher education growing dramatically
Online instruction in K-12 education settings
Military using technology-based instruction online and simulation and gaming technology use growing
[Media used: television]
[Media used: Computers]
WWII - Origins of Instructional Design
Robert Gagne, Leslie Briggs, John Flanagan
, and others developed military training materials derived from research and theory instruction, learning and human behavior, evaluation and testing
Following WWII, psychologists started viewing training as a system;
Robert Miller
,
Psychological Principles in System Development
1960s - Programmed Instruction Movement & Behavioral Objectives
1962: Robert Mager
,
Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction
writing objectives to include desired learner behavior, conditions of performance, and how the behaviors will be evaluated
Ralph Taylor
, father of the behavioral objectives movement
"Each objective must be defined in terms which clarify the kind of behavior which the course should help to develop" (Reiser, 2012, p. 24)
1956: Benjamin Bloom
and colleagues,
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
1960s
Criterion-referenced testing movement
Robert Glaser coined the term "criterion-referenced measures"
central feature of instructional design procedures
1965
Domains of Learning, Events of Instruction, and Hierarchical Analysis
Robert Gagne
,
The Conditions of Learning
cornerstones of instructional design practices
5 domains of learning outcomes: verbal information, intellectual skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes and cognitive strategies
Nine events of instruction
1967
Micheal Scriven
, coined
formative evaluation
and
summative evaluation
following realization that drafts need to be piloted and evaluated prior to implementation
response to the launch of Sputnik, U.S. Government funded instructional materials without tryouts prior to implementation
Mid-1960s
Systematic design of instructional materials
:
Gagne, Glaser, Silvern termed:
"instructional design"
"systematic design"
"instructional system"
1970s
The use of instructional systems approach grew in settings:
U.S. military - to guide training materials
Academia - helping faculty use media and improve the quality of their instruction
Business and industry - improve the quality of training
Journal of Instructional Development
first published
Practically all instructional design models contained ADDIE
1971:
Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) emerged from DAVI (Saettler, 1998)
1977:

Journal of Instructional Development
began
(Reiser, 2012)
(Reiser, 2012)
1990s
The
human performance improvement movement
Constructivist
views of teaching and learning
Using computers to improve on-the-job performance
Computer-based knowledge management systems to support learning

(Reiser, 2012)
2000s
Increased job opportunities for those in the instructional design field
E-learning
Informal learning > formal training
(Reiser, 2012)
2015: Take Home Message
"...those whose work is influenced by the lessons learned from the history of media and the history of instructional design will be well-positioned to have a positive influence on future developments within the field."
(Reiser, 2012, p. 27)
References
Reiser, R.A. (2012).
Trends and issues in instructional design and technology
. Reiser, R.A., & Dempsey, J.V. (Eds.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
(Reiser, 2012)

(Reiser, 2012)
(Reiser, 2012)
(Reiser, 2012)
(Reiser, 2012)
(Reiser, 2012)
(Reiser, 2012)
(Reiser, 2012)
The Communication Eras that Influenced Instructional Design
(Reiser, 2012)
[Media used: stereographs, slides, films, study prints]
[Media used: magic lanterns (lantern slide projectors), stereopticons (stereograph viewers), motion picture projector]
(Reiser, 2012)
1914 - 1923
Visual instruction movement growth
5 national organizations developed
5 journals on visual instruction published
20+ visual instruction teacher-training courses offered
Approx. a dozen large-city school systems developed bureaus of visual education
1918 - 1923 Visual instruction education "Firsts":
First formal credit courses in visual education
First professional organizations (at local and national levels) and journals on visual instruction appeared
First systematic research studies of visual instruction were reported
First administrative units of visual instruction were organized in public schools, colleges, universities, and state departments of education (Saettler, 1998)
[Media used: radio broadcasting, sound recordings, sound motion pictures]
(Reiser, 2012)
(Reiser, 2012)
[Media used: overhead projectors, slide projectors, audio equipment, simulators and training devices]
1946
1946
: Edgar Dale developed
"Cone of Experience"
(Torkelson, 1998)
1947
: DVI became the Department of Audiovisual Instruction (DAVI)
signified the change from visual instruction to audiovisual instruction (Saettler, 1998)
Torkelson, G.M. (1998). A history of AECT from a person perspective.
Tech Trends
. 43(1). 47-50.
Saettler, P. (1998). Antecedents, origins, and theoretical evolution of AECT.
Tech Trends
. 43(1). 51-57.
180,000 BC to AD 1450
Poe, M.T. (2011). A history of communications: Media and society from the evolution of speech to the Internet. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
The
"Talking Era"
- 180,000 BC to 3500 BC
Plato - world's first philosopher and first media critic; coined "dialectic" for reasoned discussion to arrive to the Truth
The
"Manuscript Era"
- 3500 BC to AD 1450
Mesopotamia craft tokens led to first system of pictographic writing
3100 BC: cuneiform writing system born

(Poe, 2011)
The "Print Era" - 1450 to 1850
1439:
Johannes Gutenberg opened the first European print shop with the
printing press
After
1450
, the Chinese were using carved stone to print text
1631:
first weekly newspaper appeared in Paris
1751:
first encyclopedia introduced by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert
1830s
: Nicephore Niece produced the first photograph
(Poe, 2011)
The "Audiovisual Era" - 1850 to 1990
1857
: Edoudard-Leon Scott's "phonoautograph" was the first device capable of recording sound
1890
: Edison and Lumiere brothers commercialized film
1920s
: first commercial radio stations
1927
: formation of the Federal Radio Commission
1930s
: first commercial television broadcasts
1934:
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) formed
(Poe, 2011)
The "Internet Era" - 1990 to present
1859:
Rene Dagron of Paris, first microphotography patent
1880s:
calculators were being produced commercially
Mid-1920s
: George McCarthy used micrography as a potential solution to the bank's paperwork problem with the "Checkograph"
device that produced microfilm copies of checks flowing through institutions
1928
: Eastman Kodak used the Checkograph to sell microfilming services
1940s
: governments, university libraries and corporations began to microfilm their holdings; first built "mainframe" computer
1969
: U.S. government funded Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)
a set of computers and computer protocols that link the defense establishment's computers
Late 1970s
: introduction of the personal computer
Mid-1980s:
the "Internet" was born
1990s:
Tim Berners Lee invented the "World Wide Web"
(Poe, 2011)
7 Technological Ages of Man that Influenced Instructional Media
(McNeil, 2002)
McNeil, I. (Ed.) (2002). An encyclopedia of the history of technology. New York, NY: Routledge.
The First Age: Man, The Hunter, Masters Fire
Using tools and weapons made from easily available wood, bone and stone and using these tools to induce and control fire
6000,000 BC
: making fire
12,000 to 7000 BC:
The Stone Age; stone tools
3000 BC
: copper and bronze came in to use
The Second Age: Metal Ages
Specialization of tools to perform tasks brought about change in social structures
3000 BC
: 5 Basic machines (lever, wheel & axle, wedge, pulley, and screw)
3500 BC
: first documented wheel used to carry heavy loads of copper ore
1500 BC
: The Iron Age
Aristotle documented seeing wheels used as gears in 354 BC
AD 1900:
earliest "mathematical gear"
AD 100
: Chinese invented paper-making
AD 180
: Roman Mill used gears to transmit power; Dark Ages
AD 1000
: Mills used for beer-making and fulling cloth for woolen fabrics
AD 1100-1400
: Universities were founded in many European cities
The Third Age: The Machine Age
Knowledge began to be standardized and widely disseminated
Timekeeping
Egyptian water clocks, sun timepiece, compass and needle (AD 1000), dials and hands on clocks (1386-1392), pendulum clocks (1656)
Crank
1430
: a key element in mechanism, used to drive a flour mill
Printing Press
1440
: Gutenberg
Optics
1656
: first telescope, Johannes Lippershey
The Fourth Age: Early Automation Age
Factory System
1755:
Kay's Flying Shuttle
1785:
Hargreave's Spinning Jenny
1785:
Crompton's Mule
1790:
Arkwright's Water Frame
1790s:
Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin
1825:
Robert's Power Loom
1833:
Charles Babbage's Difference Engine (early calculator/computer)
Became necessary for workers to travel daily from their homes to a central place of work
The Fifth Age: The Steam Age
1349 - 1351
: Black Death in England
lead to shortage of labor
1712:
first steam pumping engine; Thomas Newcomen
1769
: first steam engine with a separate condenser; James Watt
1802
: William Symington's steam boat
1804:
Trevithick; railway locomotive
1845-1846:
"railway mania"
The Sixth Age: Internal Combustion Age
1842:
Henson & Stringfellow patented first 'Aerial Steam Engine'
1884:
Gotlieb Daimler, first light high-speed petrol engine
1885:
Carl Benz built the first 3-wheeledcar (Motor Tricycle)
1878
: first bicycle appeared
1887:
Dunlop - first pneumatic tire
1903:
Henry Ford - Ford Model 'A', motorized automobile
1903:
Wilbur and Orville Wright took their first flight (165m in 12 sec.)
1952:
first civilian aircraft with jet engines after World War II
The Seventh Age: The Electronic Age
1667:
Experiments with gas for lighting in Europe
William Murdock (England) and Philippe Lebon (France) started the gas industry
1799:
Lebon produced gas from heating wood
1800s:
Murdock used coal as a source for gas
1795:
Joseph Bramah invented the hydraulic press
idea of transmitting power throughout cities through hydraulic mains - 1812
1831:
Michael Faraday - an electric current can be generated in a wire to produce a continuous supply of electricity
first electric generator
1876:
Alexander Graham Bell - telephone invented
1881:
T.A. Edison - first incandescent lightbulb
1900s
- radio, television, tape recorder, video recorder, pocket calculator, automation and robotics, electron microscope, heart pacemaker, automatic aircraft pilot,laser, solar cells, satellite communication, rocket, man in space and unmanned space probes
(McNeil, 2002)
(McNeil, 2002)
(McNeil, 2002)
(McNeil, 2002)
(McNeil, 2002)
(McNeil, 2002)
(McNeil, 2002)
Let's explore the 1900s to 2000s in closer detail, combining instructional media and instructional design timelines.
(Reiser, 2012)
The "Talking Era" and the "Manuscript Era"
Influences on Educational Technology
1600s-1900s
1632-1704:
John Locke's
tabula rasa
theory - shift of instruction from a mental discipline to a habit formation; precursor of modern behavior modification
1712-1778:
Jean Jacques Rosseau's Emile - instructional method should be guided by the natural stages of human development (childhood to maturity)
1777-1841:
Johann Friedrick Herbart -
systems
approach with four-steps learning design, foundation for a modern psychology of perception
1886:
James Sully -
Teacher's Handbook of Psychology
, asserted that teaching is both an art and a science
(Saettler, 1998)
IDT7052: Jacque Bradford
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