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HGP and Understanding Cancer
Transcript of HGP and Understanding Cancer
This was a 15 year project coordinated by the U.S Department of Energy and the National Institute of Health.
This was a huge group effort and really showed the potential we have as human race if we work together. So what is this all about? The goals of the project were to:
Identify all the genes in human DNA
Find out the 3 billion chemical base pairs
Store the info
Improve the tools for data analysis
Tell others about the info so they can benefit from it
Find out how it can help cure disease or improve the human life. The goals of the Human Genome Project But before we start, here’s a bit about what Cancer is all about… Cancer Diagnosis
Evaluation and treatment of other medical conditions can incidentally produce the result of cancerous implications. A thorough physical exam could then take place along with an analysis of a complete medical history. Lab studies of blood, urine, and feces can also confirm the indications of cancer. Types and Diagnosis Cancer is caused by mutations to the DNA within cells. Normal cells often develop mutations in their DNA, but they have the ability to repair most of these mutations. If they can't make the repairs, the cells often die. However, certain mutations aren't repaired, causing the cells to grow and become cancerous. Mutations also cause cancer cells to live beyond their normal cell life span. This causes the cancerous cells to accumulate. In most cases this will form a tumor. How does Cancer Occur? Surgery- Used for localized cancers. Usually offers the greatest chance of cure for most types of cancer.
Radiation Therapy- Will destroy or damage cancerous cells to stop their growth and accumulation.
External Radiation- painless treatment, much like getting an X-ray.
Radiation Seed Implants- small containers of radiation placed in or near the tumor while the patient is under anesthesia. How is cancer treated? The Cancer Genome Project is using the human genome sequence and high mutation detection techniques to identify somatically acquired sequence variants/mutations and hence identify genes critical in the development of human cancers (see here for a description of our strategy). This initiative will ultimately provide the paradigm for the detection of germline mutations in non-neoplastic human genetic diseases through genome-wide mutation detection approaches. **
Because we now know more about our own genome, we may be able to alter DNA and prevent those who have a high risk of developing cancer.
** According to the Trust Sanger Institute website So what do we know about cancer thanks to the Human Genome Project? Types
Carcinoma - cancer that begins in the skin or in the tissue that line or cover internal organs
Sarcoma - cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, muscle and any other connective or supportive tissue
Leukemia - cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood
Lymphoma and Melanoma - cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system
Central nervous system cancer - cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord